Category Archives: Gallery



Name: Apkhyarta.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.321.7
Scale Length: in mm.
Frets: Fretless.
Strings: 2.
Area: Abkhazia.
Country: Georgia.
Region: Caucasus.

Description: The Apkhyarta [Ap’hyarsta] is a bowed long necked lute having one or two strings from Abkhazia. Has a spindle narrow-shaped frame and it is played with a bow. The Apkhyarta is usually carved from alder wood.


Name: Arbajo.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.321.5
Area: Lamjung District and Kaski District.
Country: Nepal.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The arbajo is a type of Nepali plucked lute, long-necked and four stringed, now described as largely extinct and superseded by the smaller sarinda bowed Nepali sarangi. Some of the few musicians still playing the arbajo are of the Gaine caste, in Lamjung District and Kaski District of western Nepal.

Citations: Bibliography: Carol Tingey, December 1994 – Auspicious music in a changing society: the Dāmai musicians of Nepal. Heritage Publishers ISBN 978-81-7026-193-3 – Retrieved 24 March 2012 [Helffer 1977:51] ; Websites:


Name: Cifteli.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.321.6
Tuning: B / E in fourths.
Scale Length: in mm.
Strings: 2
Country: Albania, Kosovo & Southern Montenegro.
Region: Balkans & South Eastern Europe.

Description: The çifteli [in plural çiftelia; erroneously qifteli, Albanian: “doubled” or “double stringed”] is a plucked string instrument, with only two strings. Played mainly by the Gheg people of northern and central Albania, Southern Montenegro and Kosovo.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites:


Name: Bobre.
Type: Idiophones > Idiochords > Percussive > Bow.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 311.121.21
Country: Mauritius & Reunion Islands.
Region: Indian Ocean.

Description: The bobre is a musical bow that is a traditional musical bow in Mauritius and the Réunion Islands. This bow was used particularly in the traditional genres of Sega and Maloya. Although no longer used in Mauritian Sega it is still played in Reunion Islands.

Playing Techniques: It is held close to body of the musician who holds bow in his left hand. The musician plays the bow by striking the string with a small stick that is held in the right hand.

Construction: Similar to the birimbau of Brazil in both playing techniques and construction. It is a single stringer bow that has a calabash or gourd attached near the centre of the bow.

Citations: Bibliography: K. Lee, Jacques 1990 – Sega: the Mauritian folk dance ; Indiana University. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-9511296-1-6. Retrieved 2009-07-31 ; James Porter; Timothy Rice ; Chris Goertzen 1999 ; The Garland encyclopedia of world music. Indiana University: Taylor & Francis. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1. Retrieved 2009-07-31 Websites: