Membranophones

A membranophone is of any musical instrument having a body and a membrane secured to the body, that when struck with an open hand or a beater. When such action is performed on these instruments, the membrane enables the instrument to produce sound and carry resonance. Such instruments notably include drums as directly struck membranophones.

Drums, such as the drum kit, congas, djembe. The drums category contains, common shapes as descriptors for the drums such as barrel such as the Mrdangam and Pakhawaj, conical, frame, includes the Persian daff, goblet, pot and kettle such as the Tabla.  And includes a small category of “blown” membranophones. These instruments include the kazzoo and eunics flute.

1 Membranophones [2]
1.1 Struck [21]
1.1.1 Directly Struck [211]
1.1.2 Shaken [212]
1.2 Plucked [22]
1.3 Friction [23]
1.3.1 Friction drum with stick [231]
1.3.2 Friction drum with cord [232]
1.3.3 Hand friction drums [233]
1.4 Singing membranes [kazoos] [24]
1.4.1 Free kazoos [241]
1.4.2 Tube or vessel kazoos [242]
1.5 Unclassified membranophones [25]

Classification by Shape

Cylindrical
Conical
Barrel – Mrdandgam, Pakawaj.
Hourglass –
Goblet – Dumbek.
Footed
Long
Kettle – Tabla,
Frame
Friction
Mirlitons
Pot

21 Struck membranophones

Struck drums – instruments which have a struck membrane. This includes most types of drum, such as the timpani and snare drum.

211 Directly struck membranophones – Instruments in which the membrane is struck directly, such as through bare hands, beaters or keyboards

211.1 Kettle Drums ~ Instruments in which the body of the drum is dish- or bowl-shaped.

211.2 Kettle Drums – includes the tabla.

211.11 membranophones, barrel drums having a single head such as the Tamak, Timpani.

211.12 Sets of instruments.

211.21 Cylindrical Drums ~ Instruments in which the body has the same diameter at the middle and end.

211.211 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.211.10 Octoban ~ Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.211.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.212 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.212.1 Single instruments

Bass drum
Dunun
Snare drum
Tom-tom

211.212.2 Sets of instruments

211.22 Barrel Drums ~ Instruments in which the body is barrel-shaped.

211.221 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.221.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open – Conga

211.221.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.222 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.222.1 Single instruments

Taiko – this term refers to any of the various Japanese drums.
> Byō-uchi-daiko
>> Shime-daiko
>>> Okedō-daiko
>>>> Gagakki
>>>>> N-Odaiko – type of Taiko

211.222.2 Sets of instruments

211.23 Instruments in which the body is double-conical

211.231 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.231.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.231.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.232 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.232.1 Single instruments

211.232.2 Sets of instruments

211.24 Instruments in which the body is hourglass-shaped

211.241 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.241.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.241.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.242 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.242.1 Single instruments

211.242.2 Sets of instruments

211.25 Instruments in which the body is conical-shaped (conical drums)

211.251 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.251.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

Bongo drum
211.251.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.252 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.252.1 Single instruments

211.252.2 Sets of instruments

211.26 Instruments in which the body is goblet-shaped (goblet drums)

211.261 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.261.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open – Djembe

211.261.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed – Dabakan

211.262 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.262.1 Single instruments

211.262.2 Sets of instruments

211.3 Frame Drums ~ Instruments in which the body depth is not greater than the radius of the membrane. Tambourine [the additional jingles also make this an idiophone]

211.31 Instruments which do not have a handle

211.311 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.312 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.32 Instruments which have a handle

211.321 Instruments which have only one usable membrane – Bodhrán

211.322 Instruments which have two usable membranes

Shaken membranophones [212] – Instruments which are shaken, the membrane being vibrated by objects inside the drum (rattle drums).

Plucked membranophones [22] Instruments with a string attached to the membrane, so that when the string is plucked, the membrane vibrates (plucked drums) Some commentators believe that instruments in this class ought instead to be regarded as chordophones (see below).

Friction membranophones [23] Instruments in which the membrane vibrates as a result of friction. These are drums which are rubbed, rather than being struck.

Friction drums with stick [231] Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated from a stick that is rubbed or used to rub the membrane

231.1 Instruments in which the stick is inserted in a hole in the membrane

231.11 Instruments in which the stick can not be moved and is subject to rubbing, causing friction on the membrane, Cuíca, Rommelpot.

231.12 Instruments in which the stick is semi-movable, and can be used to rub the membrane

231.13 Instruments in which the stick is freely movable, and is used to rub the membrane

231.2 Instruments in which the stick is tied upright to the membrane

232 Friction drum with cord ~ Instruments in which a cord, attached to the membrane, is rubbed

232.1 Instruments in which the drum is held stationary while playing.

232.2 Instruments in which the drum is twirled by a cord, which rubs in a notch on the stick held by the player

232.11 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

232.12 Instruments which have two usable membranes

Hand friction drums [233] Instruments in which the membrane is rubbed by hand

Singing membranes [kazoos] [24] This group includes kazoos, instruments which do not produce sound of their own, but modify other sounds by way of a vibrating membrane.

Free kazoos [241] Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated by an unbroken column of wind, without a chamber

Tube or vessel kazoos [242] Instruments in which the membrane is placed in a box, tube or other container

Kazoos
Eunuch flute

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