Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Region: Middle East.
Description: A four stringed spike fiddle of Iraq. Formally the joze [in Arabic: ] known as the kamana al-bghdadiyya. The joze is used to accompany urban Arabic classical music. It is the lead instrument of the chalghi Baghdadi ensemble, following the santur [hammered dulcimer], daff and dumbek. Recently the joze is played solo and more rarely in newly created ensembles, the technique of this instrument is formerly orally taught.
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Construction: It is between the length of 60 cm to 75 cm. Having a small resonator made from a hollowed-out-coconut [a similar manner of assembly to the Egyptian rebebe]. The over all size and shape of this instrument depends on the size of the coconut. The skin of a membrane from a lamb-skin is used to cover the sound whole completing the resonator for the instrument. The diameter of the membrane is approximately 5 cm to 7 cm.
The opposite opening sound hole located at the back of the coconut is 10 cm to 13 cm in diameter. A bridge is inserted underneath the four strings. The strings travel from the bottom of the instrument where a spike is located to where the nut and tuning pegs are located. Four tuning pegs are installed into the head stock of the instrument. A capo Tasso made of thread is used to raise the tuning to suite the singers voice.
Citations: Bibliography: S. Qassim Hassan: Les Instrument de musique en Irak et leur rôle dans la société traditionnelle, Paris 1980 ; Scherazade Qassim Hassan, Stanley Sadie New Grove Dictionary Of Music, Book A to F, pages 333-334 ; Websites