Name: Tiqin.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Huqins > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Bayin: 絲 Silk.
Tuning: E / A.
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The tiqin [in Mandarin Chinese: 提琴; pinyin: tíqín] is a name applied to several two-stringed Chinese bowed string musical instruments in the huqin family of instruments. They are primarily played in Kungku Opera, Cantonese Music and Fujian in Taiwan.

Tiqin in Cantonese Music: Alternatively known as a zhutiqin [竹提琴] is a member of the “hard bow” [硬弓] ensemble in Cantonese opera. Its neck is made of hardwood, often suanzhi [酸枝, rosewood] or zitan [紫檀, red sandalwood]. The zhutiqin’s sound chamber is made of a very large section of bamboo larger than that of the erxian, another bowed string instrument used in Cantonese music.

Instead of snakeskin, the face is made of a piece of tong wood [桐, Firmiana simplex] or palm wood like the face of a yehu. The back of the sound chamber is made of the natural joint in bamboo, with sound holes cut in it. The tiqin used today in Cantonese opera is tuned to 仜-士 / mi-la / E-a the opposite of the erxian, which is tuned A-e.

Tiqin Tunings
Names in Chinese Tunings
  仜-士 E a

Additionally, the term tiqin is used in Chinese as a generic term referring to Western bowed string instruments of the violin family:

Tiqin Family
Name in Chinese Family
Xiao Tiqin 小提琴 Violin
Zhong Tiqin 中提琴 Viola
Da Tiqin 大提琴 Cello
Diyin Tiqin 低音提琴 Double Bass

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: The Met / Tiqin Article ;

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