Type: Aerophones > Shawms > Reeds.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.112
Country: Bengkulu, Sumatra, Indonesia & Malaysia.
Region: Far East Asia.
Description: The Sarunai is a shawm, belonging to the multiple reed group of reed aerophones. It is primarily played in Sumatra Indonesia and neighbouring Malaysia. It is related to the Arabic zurna in it basic design.
Varieties: In Minangkabau, West Sumatra, the sarunai consists of a double reed of palm leaf lamellae inserted into a metal ring. The reed assembly is then fitted into the top of the instrument. The bell is made of water buffalo [Bubalus bubalis] horn attached to the front end of the instrument. Two conically bored pipes are fitted with a wooden or metal ring. Alternatively a piece of rice stalk is fitted into an open piece of bamboo about 23 cm in length. A “U” shaped slit is cut into the top of a stalk t serve as a reed. Four finger holes are cut into the bamboo tube.
Citations: Bibliography: New Grove Dictionary of Music by Stanley Sadie Volume 3, P to Z pages 301 / 302 Sarunai ; A.D. Jansen: Gonrang Music: Its Structure and Functions in Simalungun Batak Society in Sumatra, diss. University of Washington, 1980 ; Margaret J. Kartomi ; Dualism in Unity: the Ceremonial Music of the Mandailing Raja Tradition, Asian Music, xii/2, 1981 ; Lyn Moore with Jack Percival Baker Dobbs ;