Name: Satara.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Duct > Double.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.221.12
Country: Rajasthan, India & Pakistan.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The satara is a duct flute played in pairs, akin to the alghoza. It is played primarily in the desert regions of Rajasthan, North India and Pakistan. Satara are played by shepherd communities or by castes of professional musicians most notably the Langa. The langa have adopted the satara for several generations. The langa perform folk melodies that are improvised, variation and ornamentation.

In Rajasthan the satara consists of two independent wooden pipes, whose upper ends are fitted with a block to delineate the air-duct, terminate in a beak. Two kinds of satara are distinguished: Those who the two pipes are of the same equal length about 60 cm] and a relation of roughly ‘one in a half’ indicated by the term Dhodha added to the name.

According to the area where this instrument is played, the flutes are known as satara, Pava or Algoja. The last term in general denotes in Rajasthan and India especially in the north. Other duct flutes that are played in pairs but with two separate melody pipes of similar size.

Playing Techniques: Both flutes are played by one musician utilizing circular breathing called “nakasi” during performance.

Citations: Bibliography: C. Sachs Die Musikinstrumente Indiens und Indonesiens [in English: Musical Instruments, Indians and Indonesians] Berlin and Leipzig,1914, 2 / 1912 ; K. S. Kothari: Indian Folk Musical Instruments New Dheli, 1968 / 62 ; G. Dourmon: Flutes of Rajasthan, LDX 76645 [compact disc notes] ; K. Kothari: Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan, Borunda, 1977 ; C. B. Deva: Musical Instruments of India their History and Development, Calcutta 1978 ; Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary Of Music, Book 3, P to  Z Page 302, 303 Websites:

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