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Name: Tongali.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Area: Luzon, Philippines.
Country: Philippines.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The tongali is a vertical nose flute having four finger holes, this includes the thumb hole at the back of the flute. The Tongali is played by the Kalinga and other peoples in Luzon, Philippines. The tongali is studied in the music department of UP [University Of Philippines] among other traditional instruments.

Origin: There are stories from this region that say that the nose flute was used to help rice grow when it was young, as the rice was attracted to the soft sounds of the flute, and would grow to put its ear above the water to hear it better.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ [Tongali Article] ;


Name: Pensol.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Malaysia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The pensol is a nose-flute played by the Semang people who are found in the areas of Perak, Pahang, Kelantan and Keda in Central Malaysia. The pensol is a very thin and quiet instrument. It is unique from other Malaysian nose flutes, in that the last hole is very close to the end of the instrument thereby making the first interval a minor second. Pensol are very rare instruments.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ [Pensol Article] ;

Ipu Hokiokio

Name: Ipu Hokiokio.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Area: Hawaii, USA.
Country: USA.
Region: Pacific Ocean.

Description: The ipu hōkiokio or also ipu hoehoe, pu’a is a vessel nose flute aerophone of the Hawaiian people. The ipu hōkiokio was played as a solo instrument, the performer supposedly imitating the melodic contour of 2, 3 and 4-tone mele ho’oipipo [love chants].

The ipu hōkiokio is seldom used today but is still made and easily procurable at hula supply stores, Hawaiian craft fairs and tourist venues, sold as a symbol of ancient Hawaiian culture or as a novelty.

Citations: Bibliography: Emerson, Nathaniel B. 1909 Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office ; Hiroa, Te Rangi [Peter H. Buck] 1964 – Arts and Crafts of Hawaii–IX: Musical Instruments. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press ; McLean, Mervyn. 1999 – Weavers of Song: Polynesian Music and Dance – Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press ; Roberts, Helen H. 1967. Ancient Hawaiian Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc ; Tatar, Elizabeth. 1979. “’Ohe hano ihu,” in Kanahele, George S. Hawaiian Music and Musicians. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 270-272 ; Websites: Grinnell Instrument Collection / Ipu Hokiokio – Hawaiian Nose Flute [of gourd] ;


Name: Flabiol.
Type: Aerophones > Flute > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Area: Catalonia, Roussillon, Aragon & Balearic Islands.
Country: Spain & France.
Region: Western Europe & Iberian Peninsula.

Description: The flabiol [Pronunciation IPA: fləβiˈɔl]  is a member of the family of flutes called “Fipple Flutes”. This family includes instruments such as the pipe & tabor, recorder and zuffolo etc. It is one of the 12 musical instruments of the Cobla ensemble. The flabiol measures 25 cm in length and has five or six finger-holes on its front and three finger-holes underneath.

All the sardanes that are played by cobla ensembles begin with a short introduction [introit] from the flabiol which is terminated by a single tap of the tambori. The traditional geographic zone for the flabiol, extends ends from Catalonia to the Roussillon area of France and the eastern strip of Aragon to the Balearic Islands. Where it is used as a solo instrument with its own melodies.

The two main types are the dry flabiol without keys, usually made of a hardwood such as bubinga [Guibourtia]. And a keyed flabiol played in coblas for Sardinia dances and in other folk ensembles. The flabiol is played by the left land while the player uses the right hand to beat a small drum called a tambori, is attached to the left elbow.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites:


Name: Denstivka.
Type: Aerophones > Flute > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Ukraine.
Regions: Eastern Europe.

Description: The dentsivka [in Ukrainian: Денцівка pronounced: Denchivka] it is a woodwind musical instrument. The dentsivka is often commonly called a sopilka. However, It differs from the true sopilka in that the dentsivka has a fipple. Analogous to the western European recorder. It is classified as a duct flute.

Construction: Usually it is made from a wooden tube approximately 30 cm to 40 cm [12 inch to 16 inch] in length. Additional tone holes are cut or burnt into the wood and a fipple is added at the front end. If the fipple is in the top of the instrument on the same plane as the playing holes, instead of the underside, the instrument is a kosa dudka [in Ukrainian: Коса дудка]. 

The internal diameter is usually 12 to 14 mm [0.4 to 0.5 in] with the walls of the tube being 2 mm to 3 mm [0.08 inches to 0.12 Inches] thick. In traditional instruments the tuning varied based on the length of the tube. The scale of the dentsivka was usually diatonic. Having a range of two and a half octaves.


Name: Baluat.
Type: Aerophones > Flute > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Area: Karo & Aceh North Sumatra.
Country: Indonesia.
Regions: South East Asia.

Description: The baluat is a end blown duct flute having a narrow external diameter end-blown duct flute. There are a few varieties of baluat known. They are found in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The instrument is most notably use by the Karo Mandailing and Toba Batak peoples of the province of North Sumatra. It is also use by the Gayo and Alas peoples of Aceh.

Two types of baluat are distinguished in the Karo area: the baluat pingko-pingko and the baluat gendek. The relatively soft-toned baluat pingko-pingko is made from a bamboo tube usually 30 cm to 50 cm in length and 1 cm to 2 cm wide at the top. The louder baluat gendek is about 24 cm long and 2 cm wide.

Construction: Both types narrow towards the bottom and have six small finger-holes about 2 cm apart. Sometimes baluat may have a third or sixth finger hole that is larger then others. A bamboo or wooden block inserted into the top forms a small duct that directs the breath onto the sharp edge of a V-shaped opening cut just below the block. The lower end of the flute is usually cut at a node, which serves to strengthen the instrument. A small hole is made in the node.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Baluat Article / Grove Dictionary ;


Name: Atenteben.
Type: Aerophones > Flute > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Ghana.
Regions: Africa.

Description: The atenteben [atɛntɛbɛn] is a flute from Ghana that is carved of bamboo. It is played vertically like the European recorder. It can be played both diatonically and chromatically in the same manner. Although originally used as a traditional instrument in funeral processions.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the atenteben been used in a secular manner having classical and contemporary compositions written for it. Some musicians display a virtuosity in their ability to perform both African and Western music on the instrument.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites:


Name: Xun.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Vessel.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.221.42
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The Xun [simplified Chinese: 埙; traditional Chinese: 塤; pinyin: xūn; Cantonese= hyun1] is a globular, vessel flute from China. It is one of the oldest musical instrument in China having been in use for approximately 7000 years 1600 BCE [Xia Dynasty]. The Xun is initially made of baked clay or bone or later clay or ceramic.

The xun the only surving example of the “earth” category of musical instruments in the bayin or “eight tone” system of classifying musical instruments. Based on the eight classifications of tone from, metal, silk, bamboo, gourd, earth, membrane [animal hide or snake skin] or wood.

History: Archeologists have discovered vessel-flutes like the xun in common graves of the Xia dynasty. They had only three finger holes capable of a limited range of notes producing only the five notes of the pentatonic scale being do, mi, so, la, fa or C / D / G / E / A / F.

The shape of the xun as it is today was due to efforts of standardization during the Shang dynasty. Most xun of this era have five finger holes and produced a much better quality of tone. They were able to produce all tones and half tones in a single octave.

The origins of the xun date back to the Stone Age, it has much to do with the Chinese hunting practices. During ancient times people tied a stone or mud ball to the rope that was used for hunting wild animals.

Some of the balls were hallow, which allowed it to make many sounds when thrown. Most people found it enjoyable and learned how to blow air into it. Gradually, the “stone meteor” became the musical instrument we know as “xun”.

Citations: Bibliography: Jin, Jie 2011 Chinese Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN0521186919 ; Thrasher, Alan 2000 Chinese Musical Instruments. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 16. ISBN 0-19–590777-9 ; Websites: Thrasher, Alan 2007 “Xun”. Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press ; / Xun Article by Randy Raine-Reusch ;