Type: Chordophones > Composites > Lutes > Citole.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.321.6
Tuning: C D G C E A
Description: The Bandora or bandore is a large long-need lute that can be regarded as a bass cittern. Though it does not have the re-entrant tuning one would typically encounter with the cittern. Probably first built by John Rose in England around 1560, it remained popular for over a century. A somewhat smaller version was the orpharion.
Etymology: During the 17th century the use of nomenclature and naming conventions was not present and terms were used loosely. The Spanish bandurria, this term though once also interchangeable now applies to a treble instrument like its close relative, the mandolin.
A similar confusion as has occurred with mandore, mandora, mandola [q.v]. All these instruments are thought to derive their names originally from the ancient Greek pandura in which the term, once again, is found applied to a variety of stringed instruments in different regions at an early date.
Tuning: The tuning used on this instrument is closest to the lute. The bandora is frequently one of the bass instruments in a “broken concert” as associated with the works of Thomas Morley. Anthony Holborne wrote many pieces for solo bandora. The multiple lute settings of Pacoloni appear both with and without optional wire-strung instruments.
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