Name: Catalan Shawm.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Heteroglots > Shawms.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.112
Region: Iberian Peninsula, Western Europe.
Description: The Catalan shawm it is one of two varieties of the shawm present in Catalonia, North Eastern Spain. The types of shawm commonly found in Catalonia are the tible [pronounced in IPA ˈtibːɫə which is Catalan for “treble”] and the tenora [Catalan for “tenor”. The tenora is pitched a fifth lower than the tible.
Distribution: Numerous shawms exist through out the world. Most shawms in the world are found in Middle East, Caucasus, North Africa and far as South East Asia. Catalonia is one of the few places in Europe where shawms lacking keys are still frequently used. Shawms used to be widespread in Europe up into the Renaissance.
They were chiefly of two types: shawms that evolved from bagpipe chanters, and shawms that evolved from Middle Eastern instruments. The Italian ciaramella is an example of the former, and the tible and tenora of the latter. The oboe features aspects of both designs.
Usage & Repertoire: These shawms are usually used with other instruments to accompany the traditional Catalan circle dance, the Sardana. Other Catalan folk shawms include the tarota [pronounced: In IPA: təˈɾɔtə ]. the original keyless version of the tible and the Gralla: In IPA: ɡɾaʎə] a short, strident instrument with a steep conical bore. Both of these resemble shawms from other parts of Spain, such as the dolçaina of Aragon and Valencia, and both employ open fingering.
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