412 Interruptive free aerophones ~ The air-stream is interrupted periodically
412.1 Idiophonic interruptive aerophones or reeds – The air-stream is directed against a lamella, setting it in periodic vibration to interrupt the stream intermittently. In this group also belong reeds with a ‘cover,’ i.e. a tube in which the air vibrates only in a secondary sense, not producing the sound but simply adding roundness and timbre to the sound made by the reed’s vibration; generally recognizable by the absence of finger-holes.
412.11 Concussion reeds – Two lamellae make a gap which closes periodically during their vibration.
412.12 Percussion reeds – A single lamella strikes against a frame.
412.121 Independent percussion reeds.
412.122 Sets of percussion reeds. – Earlier organs
412.13 Free-reed instruments feature a reed which vibrates within a closely fitting slot (there may be an attached pipe, but it should only vibrate in sympathy with the reed, and not have an effect on the pitch – instruments of this class can be distinguished from 422.3 by the lack of finger-holes).
412.131 Individual free reeds.
412.132 Sets of free reeds.
Accordica (mouth organ)
Accordolin (mouth organ)
412.14 Band reed instruments – The air hits the sharp edge of a band under tension. The acoustics of this instrument have so far not been investigated.
412.2 Non-Idiophonic interruptive instruments.
412.21. Rotating aerophones ~ the interruptive agent rotates in its own plane and does not turn on its axis.
412.22. Whirling aerophones ~ the interruptive agent turns on its axis
413 Plosive aerophones
The sound is caused by a single compression and release of air.
Udu “drum” or kimkim
End-struck pipe-based instruments, variations on earlier known instruments recently popularized by Blue Man Group, in forms that they refer to as Tubulum, Drumbone, etc.
Non-free aerophones (wind instruments proper) (42)
The vibrating air is contained within the instrument. This group includes most of the instruments called wind instruments in the west, such as the flute or French horn, as well as many other kinds of instruments such as conch shells.
421 Edge-blown aerophones or flutes ~ The player makes a ribbon-shaped flow of air with his lips [421.1] or his breath is directed through a duct against an edge [421.2].
421.1 Flutes without duct – The player himself creates a ribbon-shaped stream of air with his lips.
421.11 End-blown flutes – The player blows against the sharp rim at the upper open end of a tube.
421.111 Individual end-blown flutes.
421.111.1 Open single end-blown flutes – The lower end of the flute is open.
421.111.11 Without finger-holes.
421.111.12 With finger-holes.
421.111.2 Stopped single end-blown flutes – The lower end of the flute is closed.
421.111.21 Without finger-holes.
421.111.22 With finger-holes.
421.112 Sets of end-blown flutes or panpipes – Several end-blown flutes of different pitch are combined to form a single instrument.
421.112.1 Open panpipes.
421.112.11 Open [raft] panpipes – The pipes are tied together in the form of a board, or they are made by drilling tubes *in a board.
421.112.12 Open bundle [pan-] pipes – The pipes are tied together in a round bundle.
421.112.2 Stopped panpipes.
421.112.3 Mixed open and stopped panpipes.
421.12 Side-blown flutes – The player blows against the sharp rim of a hole in the side of the tube.
421.121 [Single] side-blown flutes.
421.121.1 Open side-blown flutes.
421.121.11 Without finger-holes.
421.121.12 With finger-holes.
Western concert flutes.
421.121.2 Partly stopped side-blown flutes – The lower end of the tube is a natural node of the pipe pierced by a small hole.
421.121.3 Stopped side-blown flutes.
421.121.31 Without finger-holes.
421.121.311 With fixed stopped lower end – [Apparently non-existent].
421.121.312 With adjustable stopped lower end
421.121.32 With finger-holes.
421.122 Sets of side-blown flutes.
421.122.1 Sets of open slide-blown flutes.
421.122.2 Sets of stopped side-blown flutes.
421.13 Vessel flutes [without distinct beak] The body of the pipe is not tubular but vessel-shaped
Conch shell [if played like a flute]
421.2 Flutes with duct or duct flutes – A narrow duct directs the air-stream against the sharp edge of a lateral orifice
421.21 Flutes with external duct – The duct is outside the wall of the flute; this group includes flutes with the duct chambered in the wall under a ring-like sleeve and other similar arrangements.
421.211 [Single] flutes with external duct.
421.211.1 Open flutes with external duct.
421.211.11 Without finger-holes.
421.211.12 With finger-holes.
421.211.2 Partly stopped flutes with external duct.
421.211.3 Stopped flutes with external duct.
421.212 Sets of flute with external duct.
421.22 Flutes with internal duct – The duct is inside the tube. This group includes flutes with the duct formed by an internal baffle, natural node, bock of resin and an exterior tied-on cover [cane, wood, hide].
421.221 [Single] flutes with internal duct.
421.221.1 Open flutes with internal duct.
421.221.11 Without finger-holes
421.221.12 With finger-holes
421.221.2 Partly stopped flute with internal duct.
421.221.3 Stopped flutes with internal duct.
421.221.31 Without finger-holes.
421.221.311 With fixed stopped lower end.
421.221.312 With adjustable stopped lower end.
421.221.31 With finger-holes.
421.221.4 Vessel flutes with duct.
421.221.41 Without finger-holes.
421.221.42 With finger-holes.
421.222 Sets of flutes with internal duct.
421.222.1 Sets of open flutes with internal duct.
421.222.11 Without finger-holes – Open flue stops of the organ.
Flue pipe of an organ
421.222.12 With finger-holes
421.222.2 Sets of partly stopped flutes with internal duct.
421.222.3 Sets of stopped flutes with internal duct.
Reed aerophones (422)
The player’s breath is directed against a lamella or pair of lamellae which periodically interrupt the airflow and cause the air to be set in motion.
422.1 Double reed instruments – There are two lamellae which beat against one another.
422.11 (Single) oboes.
422.111 With cylindrical bore.
422.111 With cylindrical bore
422.111.1 Without finger-holes.
422.111.2 With finger-holes.
422.112 With conical bore
Musette [modern small oboe in e♭]
Cor anglais / English horn [same instrument]
Oboe da caccia
Bass oboe / Baritone oboe [same instrument]
Cornemuse du Centre
Great Highland Bagpipe
Musette de cour
422.12 Sets of oboes.
422.121 With cylindrical bore.
422.122 With conical bore.
422.2 Single reed instruments – The pipe has a single ‘reed’ consisting of a percussion lamella.
422.21 (Single) clarinets.
422.211 With cylindrical bore.
422.211.1 Without finger-holes.
422.211.2 With finger-holes.
Piccolo clarinet in A♭
Sopranino clarinet (in E♭ or D))
Soprano clarinet (in C, B♭, or A)
Basset clarinet (in A or G)
(see also main article “Types of bagpipes” for many others)
422.212 With conical bore.
Soprillo (sorpassassimo saxophone)
Soprano saxophone in B♭ or C
Mezzo-soprano saxophone in F
C melody saxophone
422.22 Sets of clarinets.
422.3 Reed-pipes with free reeds – The reed vibrates through [at] a closely fitted frame. There must be finger-holes, otherwise the instrument belongs to the free reeds 412.13.
422.31 Single pipes with free reed.
422.32 Double pipes with free reeds.
The player’s vibrating lips set the air in motion.
423.1 Natural trumpets – There are no means of changing the pitch apart from the player’s lips.
423.11 Conches – A conch shell serves as trumpet.
423.111.1 Without mouthpiece.
Conch shell [if played like a trumpet]
423.111.2 With mouthpiece.
423.12 Tubular trumpets.
423.121 End-blown trumpets – The mouth-hole faces the axis of the trumpet.
423.121.1 End-blown straight trumpets – The tube is neither curved nor folded.
423.121.11 Without mouthpiece.
423.121.12 With mouthpiece.
423.121.2 End-blown horns – The tube is curved or folded.
423.121.21 Without mouthpiece.
423.121.22 With mouthpiece.
423.122 Side blown trumpets.
423.2 Chromatic trumpets – The pitch of the instrument can be altered mechanically
423.21 Keyed trumpets
Cornett [or Cornetto]
423.22 Slide trumpets
423.23 Valved trumpets
423.231 Conical bore
423.232 Semi-conical bore
Tenor Horn / Alto horn (same instrument)
423.233 Cylindrical bore