Buk

Name: Buk.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Barrel.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.22
Country: Korea.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The buk is a barrel drum traditional to jeongak [Korean court music] and Korean folk music. Buk are categorized as hyeokbu [혁부, 革部] which are instruments made with leather, and has been used for jeongak [Korean court music] and folk music.

Etymology: The name buk is a native Korean word, it is used to denote a generic meaning for drum [the Sino-Korean word being “go”]. It is most often used to describe a shallow barrel drum covered with a membrane of animal skin.

Currently there are twenty types of buk that are used in present day Korean traditional music. Most commonly used buk are the jwago to perform Samhyeon yukgak [삼현육각: Hangul, 三絃六角: Hanja]. They include yonggo for marching music, gyobango for bukchum [북춤, drum dance], beopgo for Buddhist ritual ceremonies, sogo used by Namsadang and street musicians. Soribuk called or called gojangbuk for pansori, maegubuk [or called nongabuk] used for nongak and motbanggo as played by farmers to keep the pace when working.

History: Buk have been used in Korean music since the period of the Three Kingdoms of Korea [57 AD – 668 AD]. The buk has been featured in mural paintings in the Anak tomb of Goguryeo [37 BC – 668 AD] and records of the book of Sui on the kingdoms, Goguryeo and Baekje [18 BC – 660 AD].

In the third Anak Tomb, there are two types of buk depicted in the paintings titled Juakdo [주악도: Hangul, 奏樂圖: Hanja “painting of playing music”] and Haengryeoldo [행렬도: Hangul 行列圖: Hanja, “painting of marching”]. Additionally the ipgo [‘입고: Hangul 立鼓: Hanja] and damgo [담고: Hangul, 擔鼓: Hanja] respectively. The ipgo is a buk that performers beat as standing, while the damgo is a buk that drummers strike as carrying it on their shoulder.

During the Unified Silla period [668 – 935], daego [대고: Hangul 大鼓: Hanja] or keunbuk, meaning “a big drum” was used along with a percussion instrument named bak [박: Hangul, 拍: Hanja] in a music played by Samhyeon Samjuk [삼현삼죽: Hangul, 三絃三竹: Hanja].

Which comprises samhyeon, three stringed instruments such as the geomungo, gayageum, hyangbipa samjuk such as a daegeum, junggeum and sogeum. In the Goryeo period [918 – 1392] as dangak and aak were introduced from China. Allot of buk such as janggu, gyobanggo, jingo began to be used for court music.

Playing Techniques: Performers in the court-music usually beat their buk with bukchae [북채, a drum stick] on one hand or two hands together. drummers who play folk music commonly beat their bukchae [북채, a drum stick] with their on their right hand. While hitting the other side of the buk with their bare left hand. A while ago, even jong [종, bell] was referred to as “soebuk” [쇠북, metal drum] and included in the buk category.

Construction: The round barrel-shaped body of the buk is carved from wood. Animal skin or leather membrane are stretched on both sides of the instrument creating the drum itself.

Citations: Bibliography: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed. S.v. “Puk,” by Robert C. Provine – Jang Sa-hun [장사훈] 1969 [각종 북의 명칭과 사진 자료: in Hangul] Korean Musical Instruments [韓國樂器大觀: Hanja, Korean] Korean Musicological Society / Cultural Heritage Administration. ISBN 89-7096-140-2 ; Archived from the original on 2011-07-16 ; Kang Han-yeong [강한영] [1976] ; Pansori 세종대왕기념사업회 also documented in the historic document Akhak gwebeom ; Website:

Electrophones

Francis William Galpin provided such a group in his own classification system, which is closer to Mahillon than Sachs-Hornbostel. For example, in Galpin’s 1937 book A Textbook of European Musical Instruments, he lists electrophones with three second-level divisions for sound generation by means of oscillation, electromagnetic and electrostatic.

As well as third tier and fourth tier categories based on the control method. Sachs himself proposed subcategories 51, 52 and 53 on pages 447-467 of his 1940 book. The History of Musical Instruments. However, the original 1914 version of the system did not acknowledge the existence of his 5th category.

Present-day ethnomusicologists, such as Margaret Kartomi [page 173] and Terry Ellingson [PhD dissertation, 1979, p. 544] suggest that, in keeping with the spirit of the original Hornbostel Sachs classification scheme. If one categories musical instruments by their sounds they produce.

That the only subcategory 53 should remain in the electrophones category. Thus it has been more recently proposed that, for example, the pipe organ [even if it uses electric key action to control solenoid valves] remain in the aerophones category, and that the electric guitar remain in the chordophones category, and so on.

Thus, in present-day ethnomusicology, an electrophone is considered to be only musical instruments which produce sound primarily by electrical means. It is usually considered to constitute one of five main categories in the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. Though it is not actually present in the scheme published in 1914.

51 = Electrically actuated acoustic instruments [e.g., pipe organ with electronic tracker action].

52 = Electrically amplified acoustic instruments [e.g., acoustic guitar with pickup].

53 = Electronic instruments driven by oscillation, such as synthesizers and theremins. Kurt Sachs referred to this sub-category as “radio electric” instruments.

Ipu Hokiokio

Name: Ipu Hokiokio.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Hawaii, USA
Region: Pacific Ocean.

Description: The ipu hōkiokio or also ipu hoehoe, pu’a is a vessel nose flute aerophone of the Hawaiian people. The ipu hōkiokio was played as a solo instrument, the performer supposedly imitating the melodic contour of 2, 3 and 4-tone mele ho’oipipo [love chants].

Origins: Vessel nose flutes are not found in other parts of Polynesia, so it has been assumed that the ipu hōkiokio is of Hawaiian invention [Hiroa 1964, p. 393]. However, McLean [1999, p. 496] points out that gourd whistles are found elsewhere in Oceania, but does not explicitly state if they are played as nose flutes. It is at least possible that the gourd whistle or the idea of it might have been introduced to Hawaii by ancient Polynesian voyagers, but it is unclear if the method of sounding it with the nose originates in Hawaii or elsewhere.

The ipu hōkiokio is seldom used today but is still made and easily procurable at hula supply stores, Hawaiian craft fairs and tourist venues, sold as a symbol of ancient Hawaiian culture or as a novelty.

Citations: Bibliography: Emerson, Nathaniel B. 1909 Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office ; Hiroa, Te Rangi [Peter H. Buck] 1964 – Arts and Crafts of Hawaii–IX: Musical Instruments. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press ; McLean, Mervyn. 1999 – Weavers of Song: Polynesian Music and Dance – Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press ; Roberts, Helen H. 1967. Ancient Hawaiian Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc ; Tartar, Elizabeth. 1979. “Ohe hano ihu” in Kanahele, George S. Hawaiian Music and Musicians. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 270-272 ; Websites: Grinnell Instrument Collection / Ipu Hokiokio – Hawaiian Nose Flute [of gourd] ;

Ohe Hano Ihu

Name: Ohe Hano Ihu.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Hawaii, USA
Region: Pacific Ocean.

Description: The ohe hano ihu [translation from Hawaiian: hereafter ‘ohe] is an end-blown nose flute aerophone of the Hawaiian people. Traditionally the Ohe Hano Ihu was used in the rendering of courtship, love poetry. A practice perhaps evolving from the origin myths which a prince was taught how to make and play the ohe’ by a god, played it to attract the attention of a princes. This practice died along ago, with the arrival of missionaries to the Hawaiian islands in the 19th century. The profound changes to traditional Hawaiian culture than ensued.

Repertoire: The ‘ohe was most often played as a solo instrument, the performer supposedly imitating the melodic contour of 2, 3 and four tone mele ho’oipipo [love chants]. However, Tartar [1979: 272] reports that at least in the early 19th century it was used in combination with the membranophone pahu to accompany hula.

Today the ‘ohe is still made and easily procurable at hula supply stores, Hawaiian craft fairs, and tourist venues. They are sold as a symbol of ancient Hawaiian culture or as a novelty. It is occasionally heard on commercial recordings of contemporary Hawaiian popular music.

Construction: This ‘ohe is a length of bamboo 29.21 cm / 11.5 inches with a broad cylindrical bore with an internal diameter of 3.5 cm / 1.4 inches, cut in such a manner as to leave one end closed by a natural node, the other open. The blowhole is located on the sidewall near the closed end, and three finger holes are located further down the body of the flute with a gap of 1.2 inches between them.

Citations: Bibliography: Nathaniel Emerson B. 1909 Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington, D.C – Government Printing Office ; Hiroa, Te Rangi [Peter H. Buck] 1964 – Arts and Crafts of Hawaii – IX: Musical Instruments. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press ; McLean, Mervyn. 1999 – Weavers of Song: Polynesian Music and Dance – Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press ; Roberts, Helen H. 1967. Ancient Hawaiian Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc ; Elizabeth Tartar 1979. “Ohe hano ihu,” in Kanahele, George S. Hawaiian Music and Musicians. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 270-272 ; Websites: Asza.com / Ohe Hano Ihu ; Grinnell Instrument Collection / Ohe Hano Ihu – Hawaiian Nose Flute ;

Tongali

Name: Tongali.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Philippines.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The tongali is a vertical nose flute having four finger holes, this includes the thumb hole at the back of the flute. The kalinga is played by the Kalinga and other peoples in Luzon, Philippines and the ongoing effects of the music department of UP [University of Philippines] Quezon. The tongali is one of numerous traditional instruments that students can study at UP [University of Philippines].

Origin: There are stories from this region that say that the nose flute was used to help rice grow when it was young, as the rice was attracted to the soft sounds of the flute, and would grow to put its ear above the water to hear it better.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com [Tongali Article] ;

Pensol

Name: Pensol.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Malaysia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The pensol is a nose-flute played by the Semang people of Central Malaysia. The pensol is a very thin and quiet instrument. It is unique from other Malaysian nose flutes, in that the last hole is very close to the end of the instrument thereby making the first interval a minor second. Pensol are very rare instruments.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com [Pensol Article] ;

Selingup

Name: Selingup.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Borneo, Malaysia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The selingup or selingut is a nose flute played by the Kayan people of the interior of Sarawak, a province on the Malaysian side of Borneo. Nose flutes in Sarawak were traditionally played by both men and women, as part of the courtship process, and also at funerals to appease the spirits of those that have passed. This instrument is thicker and shorter than neighbouring Kejamin instruments, but has the same sweet sound, and is capable of two octaves.

Citations: Bibliography: Discography: The album Pan Records 2067CD Sawaku, Music of Sarawak, features a track by Ajang playing the selingup. Mering and Ajang are two of the last good nose flute players in the region : Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ [selingup article] asza.com ;

 

 

Dulali

Name: Dulali.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Fiji
Region: Oceania & Pacific Islands.

Description: The dulali is a nose flute that is played in Fiji. It is known by many names, its over-all length ranges from 35 cm to 70 cm and 3 cm to 6 cm in diameter. The dulali is made of a single internode of bamboo. It is closed at both ends by the nodes, and has four to nine finger holes spaced in an equidistant manner along the length. Often three additional holes evenly spaced around the midpoint. It is probable that it functions as a vessel flute.

Some examples in museums show burned-in decorations. Fijian nose flutes are now almost obsolete. Formerly, they accompanied certain meke dances and women singing – entertainment for chiefs – and it is said that the music had the power to attract women. Music recorded in 1972 was based on a three-tone scale, but it must have been possible to play more notes. Nose flutes also existed on Tahiti, Samoa, Tonga, and other Pacific islands.

Citations: Bibliography: article by Raymond Ammann ; P. Crowe: ‘Nose Flute Music of Fiji’, Domodomo: Fiji Museum Quarterly… ; Websites: MIMO Article / Dulali ; Babasiga [blogger] Fijian Nose Flute ;

Niutuiqin

Name: Niutuiqin.
Type: Chordophones > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The niubaqin [牛腿琴] or niutuiqin [牛巴腿] is a traditional Chinese bowed string instrument. It is a two-stringed fiddle and is used by the Yi and Dong people of Guizhou. Its current physical appearance is not all that dissimilar to the European rebec. They are not related to one another. It is held as if it were cradled in the left arm for support and bowed with the right hand.

The niutuiqin named for its slender shape resembling a cow’s thigh. The proverb is called “Guiji”. also known as “Niuba Leg”, which is mainly used for sang folk songs and accompaniment. Popular in Guizhou Province, Southeast Guizhou Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture. Among the Yi people the niutuiqin plays an important role. The Dai song and the narrative song are inseparable from the ox leg. The niutuiqin is a musical instrument specially used by unmarried young people for courtship.

When young men and women first love, the young man will climb the wooden staircase in the middle of the night, climb to the attic. Courtship melodies performed on this instrument and it is also performed during weddings. The ensemble of the ox leg and the pipa can convey a warm and festive atmosphere.

Construction: The niutuiqin is traditionally carved from the leg of an ox, the body is made of a single piece of wood. A peg box, two tuning pegs stretched out on either side. They are inserted into the peg box. The back of the niutuiqin carved from the end of the half of the log. It is dug out of the long scoop-shaped abdominal cavity, and the thin plate is formed on the surface to form a resonance box. The total length is usually between 50 cm and 85 cm.

The preferred wood is Chinese fir with texture and straight knots. It is also made of paulownia, pine, eucalyptus and poplar. The preferred wood is Chinese fir with texture and straight knots. It is also made of paulownia, pine, eucalyptus and poplar. In addition, there is a small version of the niutuiqin the body is only 18 cm ~ 20 cm in length, popular in the Leli area of ​​Qijiang County, Guizhou Province.

The head is in the shape of a square column and the flat top is not decorated; each side of the string groove is provided with a hardwood peg or the right side. The front of the neck is flat and round. The body, neck and head box are then connected. 2/3rds below the panel is provided with a bamboo or wooden bridge-shaped bridge and the lower end is provided. Strings are traditionally from gut.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: qinyixue.com / Niutuiqin [Translated; by Google translate];

Jing Erhu

Name: Jing Erhu.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The Jing Erhu [in Chinese: 京二胡; in pinyin: jīng’èrhú] is a Chinese two-stringed bowed musical instrument in the huqin family of instruments. Similar to the erhu. It is so named because it is used in jing xi or Beijing opera. It is lower in pitch than the jinghu, which is the leading melodic instrument in the Beijing opera orchestra, and is considered a supporting instrument to the jinghu.

The jing erhu has a wooden body and neck. It is played vertically, with the body resting on the player’s left thigh and the horsehair of the bow passing between the two strings. It previously used silk strings, but since the 1960s has more commonly used steel strings.

The jing erhu was popularized in the 1920s by Wang Shaoqing [王少卿], a musician in the troupe of Mei Lanfang.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites:

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