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Supelka

Name: Supelka.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: North Macedonia.
Region: Balkans & South Eastern Europe.

Description: The Šupelka [in Macedonian: шупелка, or in Latin script Šupelka, in API: ‘ʃupɛɫka] is a Macedonian traditional woodwind instrument very similar to the kaval. It is mostly made of walnut, cornel, ash, or maple wood. The šupelka plays a chromatic scale [two octaves], with the exception of the first note of the lower octave. In the lower register, the šupelka gives a soft and pleasant sound, while the upper register tone is sharp and high-pitched.

The instrument represents a chromatic end-blown flute with openings on both sides of the cylindrical form. The upper opening serves for blowing [called ustinje or rez], with narrow sharp edges to tear the air and complete the sound. On its front side, the šupelka has six playing holes, although there are some šupelka’s with seven playing holes. While playing the šupelka it is held with both hands, leaning to the left about 45 degrees towards the vertical.

Its length varies between 240 mm and 350 mm. The tone is produced by blowing a hole with slimmed and rounded edges [ustinje], so that the mouth covers the hole for about three quarters. The musical repertoire of the instrument consists of improvising traditional melodies, as a background instrument in musical performances imitating the sounds of other instruments used in the Macedonian traditional music.

Considered to be primarily a sheepherder’s instrument, the šupelka is widespread in Macedonia. The šupelka receives its name from the Macedonian word shupliv [in Macedonian: шуплив], meaning hollow. It has also many similarities with the Arabic woodwind instruments gasba, used in Tunisia and Algeria.

Citations: Bibliography: “Народни инструменти – Шупелка” [in Macedonian] translation in English as “Folk Instruments Shupelka” www.imor.org.mk 2007. Retrieved 3 March 2014 ; Боривоје Џимревски 2000. Шупелката во Mакедонија [in Macedonian]. Институт за фолклор “Марко Цепенков“. ISBN 9989-642-09-5 ; “Народни инструменти – дувачки – Шупелка” [in Macedonian], www.kralemarko.org.mk – Traditional Instruments in Macedonia [in Macedonian] Skopje, Macedonia: Makedonska Kniga 1986 ;

Zybuvka

Name: Zybuvka.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Carpathian Mountains, Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The zubivka [in Ukrainian: Зубівка, Hungarian: Beregfogaras] also known as a Skosivka, Skisna Dudka, or Frukanka. The zubivka is considered one of the oldest folk wind instruments in Ukraine and is found primarily in the Carpathian region.

It was first described by wandering Arabic scholars in the 11th century. This instrument is very similar to the telenka. it is an open-ended flute. Played not unlike the floyara by having the breath break against the side of the pipe. This surface is wedge-shaped. The zubivka is usually approximately 60 cm [24 in] long.

Citations: Bibliography: [in Ukrainian] Гуменюк А. – Українські народні музичні інструменти – Київ: Наукова думка, 1967 р. Мизинец, В. – Українські народні інструменти – Мельбурн: книги Байди, 1984 р. Черкаський, Л. – Українські народні музичні інструменти // Техніка, Київ, Україна, 2003 р. 262 сторінки. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ; [in English] Gumenyuk A. – Ukrainian folk musical instruments – Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1967 Myzynets, V. – Ukrainian folk instruments – Melbourne: books by Baidy, 1984 Cherkassy, ​​L. – Ukrainian folk musical instruments // Technique, Kyiv, Ukraine , 2003 262 pages. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ;