Tag Archives: Idioglot

Idioglot

Launeddas

Name: Launeddas.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Idioglot.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.211.2
Country: Sardinia.
Region: South Europe & Mediterranean.

Description: The launeddas [also called Sardinian triple clarinet or Sardinian triple-pipe] are a typical Sardinian woodwind instrument made of three pipes. They are a polyphonic instrument, with one of the pipes functioning as a drone and the other two playing the melody in thirds and sixths.

History: Predecessors of the launeddas can be traced back to approximately 2700 BCE in Egypt, where reed pipes were originally called ‘memet’. During the Old Kingdom in Egypt [2778-2723 BCE]; memets were depicted on the reliefs of seven tombs at Saqqarra, six tombs at Giza and the pyramids of Queen Khentkaus.

The launeddas themselves date back to at least the eighth century BCE and are still played today during religious ceremonies and dances [su ballu in Sardinian language]. Distinctively, they are played using extensive variations on a few melodic phrases, and a single piece can last over an hour, producing some of the “most elemental and resonant [sounds] in European music”.

Citations: Bibliography: Kroll, O. 1968 – The Clarinet. New York, NY: Taplinger Publishing Company ; Rice, A.R. 1992 – The Baroque Clarinet. New York, NY: Oxford University Press ; Surian, Alesso. “Tenores and Tarantellas”. 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla [Ed.], World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pg. 189–201 – Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 ; Surian, pg. 190 ; “Franco Melis”. Musical Traditions Internet Magazine. URL accessed on 26 August 2005 ; F. W. Bentzon, The Launeddas. A Sardinian folk music instrument [Vol. 2. Acta Musicologica Danica n°1], Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen, 1969 ; P. Mercurio, La Cultura delle Launeddas. Cabras. I Suoni del Maestro Giovanni Casu, Solinas, Nuoro, 2011.
F. W. Bentzon, Launeddas, Cagliari, 2002 ISBN 88-88998-00-4 ;

Midjweh

Name: Midjweh.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Idioglot.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.211.2
Specimens: 3 in collection.
Country: Egypt.
Region: Middle East & Mediterranean.

Description: The midjweh is an ancient folk clarinet found in the Nile region of Egypt. It has several analogue instruments that are found throughout the Mediterranean Near East and as far away as western China. The midjweh has two identical pipes bound together and parallel sound holes. The midjweh is considered to be one of the oldest instruments of the Nile region. The midjweh player is often accompanied by another midjweh player or a drummer.

The Midjweh one of the reed-pipes referred to in the Bible, and depictions of the midjweh are found on the walls of the Egyptian funeral chambers. The midjweh is also known by a number of names including midjwiz and midjwiz. Many people confuse this instrument with the arghul that is a related instrument with only one melody pipe and a drone.

Playing Technique: The pipes are played in unison by placing the fingers across both pipes. Both reeds are totally enclosed in the mouth, and circular breathing is employed to create a continuous flow of air. Circular breathing is awkward on this instrument though, due to the depth that the reeds extend into the mouth, and this has resulted in related instruments, such as the pungi or bagpipes, having wind chambers. The reeds are made by a slight cut into a small section of cane with a closed nodal point.

The performer holds the midjweh with both hands nearly horizontally in front of him with the finger-holes up. The bulk of the reeds are situated inside the mouth cavity with the player’s lips creating a tight seal around them. The first three fingers of one hand cover the top three finger-holes of both tubes, the first three fingers of the other hand the bottom three.

In order to finger both tubes simultaneously, the soft pads between the knuckles are used to cover the holes. The notes on the two pipes are purposefully tuned slightly apart from one another so as to produce an acoustic beat. The technique of circular breathing is used by performers to achieve a continuous flow of melody. Melodies are typically narrow in range. Each reed pipe is by itself not very loud, so having two of them sounding simultaneously increases the instrument’s volume.

Construction: The midjweh consists of two tubes, each made of three interlocking segments of reed fitted into one another. The longest segment is an open tube, it has s cylindrical bore. The midjweh has six equally distanced finger-holes in a row and lacks a thumb hole on the bottom side of the instrument. These two tubes are securely bound together with tarred cotton cord at three points along their length so that their lines of finger-holes run parallel to one another.

A short about 2 inches in length second section, likewise of two parallel tubes of cane, but with no finger-holes, is inserted into the top end of the finger-hole section. Separate 2-inch lengths of reed are then inserted into the top ends of the second section. These reed tubes, closed at their top end, have a deep back cut in them along much of their length to articulate a single flexible lamellae or idioglot reed, this instrument is classified as an idioglot because the reed is not a separate entity attached to the tube, but part of the tube itself.

Citations: Bibliography: Hassan, Scheherazade Qassim 2002 – “Musical Instruments in the Arab World.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music v. 6. The Middle East. ed ; Virginia Danielson, Scott Marcus, and Dwight Reynolds. New York: Routledge, pp. 401-423 ; Marcus, Scott L. 2007 ; Music in Egypt: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press ; Marcuse, Sibyl. 1975. A Survey of Musical Instruments. New York: Harper and Row ; Morris, R. Conway. 1984. “‘Çifte [çifte].” NGDMI v.1: p. 369 ; Picken, Laurence. 1975. Folk Musical Instruments of Turkey. London: Oxford University Press ; Poché, Christian. 1984 “Mijwiz [midjwiz, miğwiz, mizwidj; mizwij]” NGDMI v, 2: p. 661 ; Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch [Midjweh Article] @ asza.com ; Grinnell College Musical Instrument Collection [Midjweh article] ;

Arghul

Name: Arghul.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Idioglot.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.211.2
Country: Egypt.
Region: North Africa & Middle East.

Description: The arghul [Arabic: أرغول or يرغول‎] also spelled argul, arghoul, arghool, argol or yarghul [in Israel]. It is a musical instrument. It has been used since Ancient Egyptian times and is still used as a traditional instrument in Egypt and Palestine.

Construction: The arghul is a double-pipe, single-reed woodwind instrument that consists of two tubes. A melody pipe with between five and seven holes and a longer drone [Arabic ardiyya, “ground”] pipe.

The tone of the arghul is similar to that of a clarinet, although a bit more reed-like. Unlike the similar midjwiz, the arghul has fingering holes on only one of the instrument’s pipes [the melody pipe] and the drone pipe has a detachable length that allows the player to alter the pitch of the drone.

Citations: Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com [arghul article] ;