Tag Archives: Guitar

Guitar

11 String Guitar

Name: 11 String Guitar.
Type: Chordophones > Lute > Guitars > Extended > Range.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.5
Tunings: Bb C D Eb F G C F Bb D G
Inventor: Georg Bolin 1960s [Sweden].
Country: Many, Europe, USA.
Region: Many, Europe, USA.

Description: The eleven-string alto guitar [also known as altgitarr, archguitar or Bolin guitar] is an extended-range classical guitar developed by Swedish luthier Georg Bolin in the 1960s. Original Bolin instruments are now rare and valuable. The Bolin alto guitar most often has eleven strings, but Bolin also made a thirteen-string version.

In the United States, luthier Walter Stanul makes performance instruments ranging from 11 to 13 strings called the Archguitar. The design and the body shape of this guitar is similar to the vihuela, and thus it is fundamentally different from the Bolin design.

History: Georg Bolin first constructed 11-string alto guitar with collaboration with Swedish guitarist Per-Olof Johnson in 1960s. Johnson is the teacher of a well-known guitarist Göran Söllscher who made this instrument famous through his extensive usage of Bolin’s 11 String alto guitar.

Johnson was fond of lute music, but the difference in playing techniques between guitar and lute is significant and he was looking for a way to play lute music using guitar playing technique. Thus, the design goal was specifically to be able to play renaissance lute music directly from original tabs using guitar playing technique.

Features: The 11-string alto guitar is a multi-string classical guitar, which generally refers to classical guitars with more than six strings. Classical guitars with extra strings can have from seven to 13 or more strings. The first six strings are tuned in the same intervals as the normal classic guitar. Therefore, a musician can play with conventional fingering on those strings.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites

Fretless Guitar

Name: Fretless Guitar.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Guitar > Types > Modified > Fretless.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.5
Country: Many.
Region: Global.

Description: A fretless guitar whether electric or acoustic; it is a modified guitar without frets. Most fretless guitars are typically modified versions of “factory made” instruments. This is especially so when it comes to fretless electric guitars they are the most common variety of this musical instrument.

A parallel analogue would be the fretless electric bass. The frets are removed by the player or a professional luthier. This type of guitar can also be custom made by professional builders who specialize in building fretless guitars.

Although it can be difficult to play chords when transitioning from fretted to fretless at first. Fretless does have the advantage of achieving quarter-tones and microtones which would not be present in conventional factory made instruments fretted under the 12-tone system.

Citations:

Modified

The definition of the term “modified” in this context any thing or property of the original musical instrument that is changed to increase the capability of note bending such as a “scalloped” guitar. The same can apply to a electric or acoustic bass guitar.  However this aspect in music is not just limited to guitars, one can include John Cage’s prepared piano as an example of a modified instrument.

Guitar Tunings / Africa

 

Guitar Tunings / West Africa
Names Nomenclature Regions Tunings
Standard * E A D G B E
Taara No. 1 C Maj 6th Mali C A D G B E
Sinquente Cix Open G Major Mali D G D G B D
Mali F A D G B E
Taara No. 2 Mali  F A D G C E
Jarabi Mali F C D G B E
Wassalou / Songhai Raised A Major Mali G A D G B E
Djeli Madi Tounkara Mali C Bb D G C F
Djeli Madi Tounkara Rentrant C# Mali C# F# B E G# C#

Citations: Bibliography: Mande Music by Eric Charry pp. 288-290 Guitar Tuning ~ Traditional And Modern Music of the Maninka and Mandinka of Western Africa. The University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-101062-2 © 2000 ;

Guitar Tunings / East Africa
Names Nomenclature Region Tunings
Standard E Min 11 * E A D G B E
E A D G B D
Mi Composé E Min 11 Congo E A [d] G B E
F A D G B E
Jean Bosco Mwenda Katanga, Congo F A D G C E
Botswana F X A C F X
Full C Uganda
Half C Uganda
LG Uganda
KG High Six Uganda
CG Uganda
Spanish Uganda E C# A E A E
D Maj 7 Tanzania D A D F# A C#
Hauyani Uganda G E C G E C
Hauyani Uganda G E C G C C

Note: The “X” denotes removed strings. Mi Composé tuning as used for Rumba and Soukous in Congo DRC, differs from the standard tuning. In which only the D string has been replaced with the bottom E string to raise the D to an entire octave.

The “Lazy D Tuning” E A D G B D as we know it in North America; is used in the genre of Maskandi music.

Citations: Bibliography: Theory of African Music Volume II by Gerhard Kubik – Chapter IX Genealogy of a Malawian Musician Family pp. 247 ISBN-13: 978-0-226-45694-2 ISBN-10: 0-225-45694-3 ; Garland Encyclopedia Book Africa [book & audio cd] ; Africa & The Blues by Gerhard Kubik ; Some Characteristics Of The Blues Page 83 ; University Press of Mississippi ; ISBN 978-1-57807-146-4 ;

Guitar Tunings / Indonesia

 

 

Guitar Tunings / Indonesia
Name Nomenclature Region  Genre Tunings
Andu Andu Rudang A Sus 4/7 E A D G A E
Rabana E Minor E A E G A E
E Minor Mandar E B D G B E
F A C G C E
Stem Las Bas F Maj 13#11 F C D G B E
Kemayoran F C D G C E
Stem Pal F Bd D G C E
F# A C# F# B E
Los Quinn Tallu-Tallu G Major Sulawesi Karambagan G C D G B D
Karambagan Sulawesi Karambagan G A D G B D
Sulawesi Karambagan G B D G B D
Stem Sanak Mewang in Ejan G6th Sulawesi Karambagan G B D G B E

Citations: Discography: Liner Notes from the Music of Indonesia Series Vol. 20 Indonesian Guitars SFW40447 pp. 10-11 [adobe PDF file] ; Websites: Erizal Barnawi / Blogspot / Guitar Klasik Lampung Tulang Bawang ;

Guitar Tunings / Papua New Guinea

 

Guitar Tunings / Papua New Guinea
Names Nomenclature Region Tunings
Standard Em11th * E A D G B E
Faiv Ki E A B F# B D#
Faiv Ki E A B E G# B
Faiv Ki F  Bb C G C E
F Bb C F A C
Samoan Ki G A D A D F#
C Ki East New Britain G C D G B D
Samoan Ki Open D Maj 7 Hood Lagoon D E A E A C#

Citations: Bibliography: Guitar Style, Open Tunings, and Stringband Music in Papua New Guinea by ~ Denis Crowdy ; Apwithirer: Studies in Papua New Guinea Musics, 9 ; Three: Analysis – Samoan Ki and the Hood Lagoon Area Page 46, Page 60 ; ISBN 9980-68-048-2 [book] Websites ; George Winston [georgewinston.com – Slack Key Information Booklet ; Section III ] ;

Guitar Tunings / Samoa

The alternate guitar tunings as represented on this page from the Samoan slack key tradition of Igi Le.

1.) Standard Tuning E / A / D / G / B / E called “Ki Sepaniolo” meaning “Spanish Tuning” or “Standard Tuning” and is mainly played in the key of C.

2.) Open G Major tuning D / G / D / G / B / D in Hawaiian slack key it is called the Tarro Patch tuning. In Samoa it is called “Ki Tu Fa” which probably means “Fourth Position Key”.

3.) A variation of the G Major Tuning G / F / D / G / B / D called “Sui Ki A Le Ki Tu Fa” meaning “Slack Key of the Open G” – and “sui” means “change” or “weaken”, which could also be taken to mean “slack”.

4.) D Wahine Tuning D / A / D / F# / A / C# sometimes called “Ki Salamo” and also “Repentance Tuning”.  This tuning was likely introduced originally from Hawaiian Slack Key.

5.) The Sui Ki Maualuga or High Slack Key tuning in Hawaiian Slack Key is C / G / C / G / A / E as used by Leonard Kwan. Also the Hawaiian Slack Key guitarist Sonny Chillingworth used a C Mauna Loa Tuning that he called the Samoan Mauna Loa Tuning F / G / C / G / C / E – on the Samoan song “Let Me Hear You Whisper” on his
recording Sonny Solo. Note the tunings are similar to one another.

6.) There is an undocumented tuning called “Ki Tu Lua” or the “Second Position Key”. It is speculated that this tuning could be the F Wahine tuning C / F / C / G / C / E  for reference the Hawaiian Slack Key guitarist Sonny Chillingworth occasionally played in a C major tuning that he called the “Samoan C major tuning F / G / C / G / C / E.

Tunings / Samoan Guitar
Names Key / Pitch Tunings
Ki Sepaniolo Standard E A D G B E
Ki Ta Lua C F C G C E
Sui Ki Maualuga High Slack Key C G C G A C
Sui Ki Maualuga High Slack Key C G C G A E
Ki Ta Lua Second Position Key C G C G C E
Ki Ta Lua Second Position Key F G C G C E
Sui Ki A Le Ki Tu Fa Slack Key Open G G F D G B D
Ki Salamo Repentance Tuning  D A D F# A C#
Ki Tu Fa Open G D G D G B D

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: georgewinston.com [Slack Key Guitar, Book 1 pdf file]

Bajo Quinto

Name: Bajo Quinto.
Type: Chordophones > Lute > Guitarillos > Bajo.
Tuning:  x A D G C F
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Country: Mexico.
Region: Latin America.

Description: Bajo Quinto [in Spanish: the name translates into English as “fifth bass”]. A reference to the omitted sixth course of doubled strings present on the instrument. This instrument is popular in the southern states of Mexico, Oaxaca, Chiapas. The usage of the Bajo Quinto is to these southern states analogous to the Bajo Sexto  in the Northern regions.

Playing Technique: A plectrum is used often as the strings are quite thick on the bajo-sexto.

Citations: Bibliography: Avetardo, J. T. ed; Puro Conjunto: An Album in words and Pictures; Center for Mexican American Studies, The University of Texas; Austin, Texas: 2001 470p. ISBN 0-292-78174-1 Bajos de espiga – Diccionario de la Música Española e Hispanoamericana. Sociedad General de Autores y Editores ; [in Spanish] Dictionary of Spanish and Spanish-American music. General Society of Authors and Publishers [in English] Madrid 2002 ISBN 978-84-8048-303-2 ; Hernandez, Ramon; An Informal History of the Bajo Sexto; in Aventardo, Ch. 12, pp. 127–130. The Texas-Mexican Conjunto Bajo sexto / quinto ;

Bajo Sexto

Name: Bajo Sexto.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Guitar > Guitarillos > Bajo.
Tuning: E A D G C F
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.5
Country: Mexico.
Region: Central America.

Description: Bajo sexto [Bajo = Bass = Sexto meaning “sixth” in reference to its 6 courses 12 strings. Each course is paired or doubled. A closely related instrument is the bajo quinto [Spanish: “fifth bass”] which has 10 strings in 5 double courses. The origins of this instrument are somewhat unclear. As most of the history is oral transmitted by those who play and build the instruments.

History: In the 17th and 18th centuries, Mexican artisans built several types of instruments with double strings in three, four, fifths, sixth, seventh and eight courses, influenced by their Spanish ancestors. Descendants of these instruments are bandolon, guitarra séptima, quinta huapanguera, jarana jarocha, concheros string instruments, and guitarra chamula, among others. The manufacture of bajo quinto and sexto reached a peak in quality and popularity in the 19th century in central and southern Mexico, in the states of Guerrero, Michoacán, Morelos, Puebla, Oaxaca and Tlaxcala.

Playing Technique: A plectrum is used often as the strings are quite thick on the bajo-sexto.

Construction: The bajo-sexto is a member of the guitar family. Physically this instrument appears to be quite similar to the 12-string guitar. There are some slight differences. The Body is usually a bit deeper. The neck is shorter, joining the body at the 12th fret. Modern 12-string guitars usually join at the 14th fret; being a bass instrument the strings are thicker.

Citations: Bibliography: Avetardo, J. T. ed. Puro Conjunto: An Album in words and Pictures; Center for Mexican American Studies, The University of Texas; Austin, Texas: 2001. 470p. ISBN 0-292-78174-1 Bajos de espiga. Diccionario de la Música Española e Hispanoamericana. Sociedad General de Autores y Editores. Madrid 2002; ISBN 978-84-8048-303-2 ; Hernandez, Ramon; An Informal History of the Bajo Sexto; in Aventardo, Ch. 12, pp. 127–130. The Texas-Mexican Conjunto Bajo sexto / quinto ;