Tag Archives: Gallery

Gallery

Ipu Hokiokio

Name: Ipu Hokiokio.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Hawaii, USA
Region: Pacific Ocean.

Description: The ipu hōkiokio or also ipu hoehoe, pu’a is a vessel nose flute aerophone of the Hawaiian people. The ipu hōkiokio was played as a solo instrument, the performer supposedly imitating the melodic contour of 2, 3 and 4-tone mele ho’oipipo [love chants].

Origins: Vessel nose flutes are not found in other parts of Polynesia, so it has been assumed that the ipu hōkiokio is of Hawaiian invention [Hiroa 1964, p. 393]. However, McLean [1999, p. 496] points out that gourd whistles are found elsewhere in Oceania, but does not explicitly state if they are played as nose flutes. It is at least possible that the gourd whistle or the idea of it might have been introduced to Hawaii by ancient Polynesian voyagers, but it is unclear if the method of sounding it with the nose originates in Hawaii or elsewhere.

The ipu hōkiokio is seldom used today but is still made and easily procurable at hula supply stores, Hawaiian craft fairs and tourist venues, sold as a symbol of ancient Hawaiian culture or as a novelty.

Citations: Bibliography: Emerson, Nathaniel B. 1909 Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office ; Hiroa, Te Rangi [Peter H. Buck] 1964 – Arts and Crafts of Hawaii–IX: Musical Instruments. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press ; McLean, Mervyn. 1999 – Weavers of Song: Polynesian Music and Dance – Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press ; Roberts, Helen H. 1967. Ancient Hawaiian Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc ; Tatar, Elizabeth. 1979. “’Ohe hano ihu,” in Kanahele, George S. Hawaiian Music and Musicians. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 270-272 ; Websites: Grinnell Instrument Collection / Ipu Hokiokio – Hawaiian Nose Flute [of gourd] ;

Ohe Hano Ihu

Name: Ohe Hano Ihu.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Hawaii, USA
Region: Pacific Ocean.

Description: The ohe hano ihu [translation hereafter ‘ohe] is an end-blown nose flute aerophone of the Hawaiian people. Traditionally the Ohe Hano Ihu was used in the rendering of courtship, love poetry. A practice perhaps evolving from the origin myths which a prince was taught how to make and play the ohe’ by a god, played it to attract the attention of a princes. This practice died along ago, with the arrival of missionaries to the Hawaiian islands in the 19th century. The profound changes to traditional Hawaiian culture than ensued.

Repertoire: The ‘ohe was most often played as a solo instrument, the performer supposedly imitating the melodic contour of 2, 3 and four tone mele ho’oipipo [love chants]. However, Tartar [1979: 272] reports that at least in the early 19th century it was used in combination with the membranophone pahu to accompany hula.

Today the ‘ohe is still made and easily procurable at hula supply stores, Hawaiian craft fairs, and tourist venues. They are sold as a symbol of ancient Hawaiian culture or as a novelty. It is occasionally heard on commercial recordings of contemporary Hawaiian popular music.

Construction: This ‘ohe is a length of bamboo 29.21 cm / 11.5 inches with a broad cylindrical bore 3.5 cm / 1.4 inches, cut in such a manner as to leave one end closed by a natural node, the other open. The blowhole is located on the sidewall near the closed end, and three finger holes are located further down the body of the flute with a gap of 1.2 inches between them.

Citations: Bibliography: Emerson, Nathaniel B. 1909 Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office ; Hiroa, Te Rangi [Peter H. Buck] 1964 – Arts and Crafts of Hawaii–IX: Musical Instruments. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press ; McLean, Mervyn. 1999 – Weavers of Song: Polynesian Music and Dance – Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press ; Roberts, Helen H. 1967. Ancient Hawaiian Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc ; Tatar, Elizabeth. 1979. “’Ohe hano ihu,” in Kanahele, George S. Hawaiian Music and Musicians. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 270-272 ; Websites: Asza.com / Ohe Hano Ihu ; Grinnell Instrument Collection / Ohe Hano Ihu – Hawaiian Nose Flute ;

Tongali

Name: Tongali.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Philippines.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The tongali is a vertical nose flute having four finger holes, this includes the thumb hole at the back of the flute. The kalinga is played by the Kalinga and other peoples in Luzon, Philippines and the ongoing effects of the music department of UP [University of Philippines] Quezon. The tongali is one of numerous traditional instruments that students can study at UP [University of Philippines].

Origin: There are stories from this region that say that the nose flute was used to help rice grow when it was young, as the rice was attracted to the soft sounds of the flute, and would grow to put its ear above the water to hear it better.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com [Tongali Article] ;

Pensol

Name: Pensol.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Malaysia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The pensol is a nose-flute played by the Semang people of Central Malaysia. The pensol is a very thin and quiet instrument. It is unique from other Malaysian nose flutes, in that the last hole is very close to the end of the instrument thereby making the first interval a minor second. Pensol are very rare instruments.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com [Pensol Article] ;

Selingup

Name: Selingup.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Borneo, Malaysia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The selingup or selingut is a nose flute played by the Kayan people of the interior of Sarawak, a province on the Malaysian side of Borneo. Nose flutes in Sarawak were traditionally played by both men and women, as part of the courtship process, and also at funerals to appease the spirits of those that have passed. This instrument is thicker and shorter than neighbouring Kejamin instruments, but has the same sweet sound, and is capable of two octaves.

A recording Ajang, playing the selingup in found on Sawaku, Music of Sarawak, Pan Records 2067CD. Mering and Ajang are two of the last good nose flute players in the region.

Citations: Bibliography: Discography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ [selingup article] asza.com ;

Dulali

Name: Dulali.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Fiji
Region: Oceania & Pacific Islands.

Description: The dulali is a nose flute that is played in Fiji. It is known by many names, its over-all length ranges from 35 cm to 70 cm and 3 cm to 6 cm in diameter. The dulali is made of a single internode of bamboo. It is closed at both ends by the nodes, and has four to nine finger holes spaced in an equidistant manner along the length. Often three additional holes evenly spaced around the midpoint. It is probable that it functions as a vessel flute.

Some examples in museums show burned-in decorations. Fijian nose flutes are now almost obsolete. Formerly, they accompanied certain meke dances and women singing – entertainment for chiefs – and it is said that the music had the power to attract women. Music recorded in 1972 was based on a three-tone scale, but it must have been possible to play more notes. Nose flutes also existed on Tahiti, Samoa, Tonga, and other Pacific islands.

Citations: Bibliography: article by Raymond Ammann ; P. Crowe: ‘Nose Flute Music of Fiji’, Domodomo: Fiji Museum Quarterly… ; Websites: MIMO Article / Dulali ; Babasiga [blogger] Fijian Nose Flute ;

Niutuiqin

Name: Niutuiqin.
Type: Chordophones > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The niubaqin [牛腿琴] or niutuiqin [牛巴腿] is a traditional Chinese bowed string instrument. It is a two-stringed fiddle and is used by the Yi and Dong people of Guizhou. Its current physical appearance is not all that dissimilar to the European rebec. They are not related to one another. It is held as if it were cradled in the left arm for support and bowed with the right hand.

The niutuiqin named for its slender shape resembling a cow’s thigh. The proverb is called “Guiji”. also known as “Niuba Leg”, which is mainly used for sang folk songs and accompaniment. Popular in Guizhou Province, Southeast Guizhou Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture. Among the Yi people the niutuiqin plays an important role. The Dai song and the narrative song are inseparable from the ox leg. The niutuiqin is a musical instrument specially used by unmarried young people for courtship.

When young men and women first love, the young man will climb the wooden staircase in the middle of the night, climb to the attic. Courtship melodies performed on this instrument and it is also performed during weddings. The ensemble of the ox leg and the pipa can convey a warm and festive atmosphere.

Construction: The niutuiqin is traditionally carved from the leg of an ox, the body is made of a single piece of wood. A peg box, two tuning pegs stretched out on either side. They are inserted into the peg box. The back of the niutuiqin carved from the end of the half of the log. It is dug out of the long scoop-shaped abdominal cavity, and the thin plate is formed on the surface to form a resonance box. The total length is usually between 50 cm and 85 cm.

The preferred wood is Chinese fir with texture and straight knots. It is also made of paulownia, pine, eucalyptus and poplar. The preferred wood is Chinese fir with texture and straight knots. It is also made of paulownia, pine, eucalyptus and poplar. In addition, there is a small version of the niutuiqin the body is only 18 cm ~ 20 cm in length, popular in the Leli area of ​​Qijiang County, Guizhou Province.

The head is in the shape of a square column and the flat top is not decorated; each side of the string groove is provided with a hardwood peg or the right side. The front of the neck is flat and round. The body, neck and head box are then connected. 2/3rds below the panel is provided with a bamboo or wooden bridge-shaped bridge and the lower end is provided. Strings are traditionally from gut.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: qinyixue.com / Niutuiqin [Translated; by Google translate];

Jing Erhu

Name: Jing Erhu.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The Jing Erhu [in Chinese: 京二胡; in pinyin: jīng’èrhú] is a Chinese two-stringed bowed musical instrument in the huqin family of instruments. Similar to the erhu. It is so named because it is used in jing xi or Beijing opera. It is lower in pitch than the jinghu, which is the leading melodic instrument in the Beijing opera orchestra, and is considered a supporting instrument to the jinghu.

The jing erhu has a wooden body and neck. It is played vertically, with the body resting on the player’s left thigh and the horsehair of the bow passing between the two strings. It previously used silk strings, but since the 1960s has more commonly used steel strings.

The jing erhu was popularized in the 1920s by Wang Shaoqing [王少卿], a musician in the troupe of Mei Lanfang.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites:

Pena

Name: Pena.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddle > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Country: Manipur, India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The [in Meetei: ꯄꯦꯅꯥ Pena ; in Tangkhul or Naga Language ; Tingtelia] is a mono string instrument falling in the lute category, similar to some of the traditional Indian stringed musical instruments such as Ravanahatha, Ubo or the Kenda, found in various parts of the country.

Etymology: It is generally believed that the name of the instrument is a derivation of the ancient Meetei term, Pena sheijing Pena. The Nagas call the instrument, Tingtelia. It is the traditional music instrument of the Meetei community of Manipur, India. The Pena is also found in some regions in Bangladesh. It is played either solo or in group, in folk music or as the accompanying musical instrument for Lai Haraoba festivals.

Pena playing is becoming a dying art as only 145 active Pena players are reported in Manipur. The Center for Research on Traditional and Indigenous Art [Laihui], an organization headed by renowned Pena player, Khangembam Mangi Singh has mandated a vision to revive Pena music.

History: The Pena, considered to be one of the oldest Meetei musical instrument, was once believed to be a part of luxurious living and was played at the royal gatherings. However, the instrument slowly got associated with the folk culture of Manipur and Bangladesh where its presence became regular during festivals. Manipuri festival of Lai Haraoba fostered the use of the instrument considerably. Later, it also made its presence in the folk theatre.

Pena Repertoire
 Names Type
1. Yaikairol Morning
2. Lai-eekouba Lai-Haraoba Festivals
3. Khunung-Eesei Folk
4. Luhongba Marriage
5. Wari -Liba Narrating Story
6. PuYa Paba PuYa

Construction: The instrument consist of two parts, the main body, penamasa or dhorr which is similar to that of a violin and the bow, pena cheijing or chorr, which is more resembling an archery bow than a violin bow. The main body is made out of a length of bamboo ranging from 25.4 cm or 10 inches to 27.94 cm or 11 inches long and 2.54 cm or 1 inch to 3.175 cm or 1.25 inches girth.

The girth is affixed to a coconut shell that is cut in half. Through two holes bore through the shell. Two additional holes are also drilled on the coconut shell for acoustic purposes. One of which is covered by dried animal skin such as iguana skin and the other, left open.

The tension of the string is controlled by a bamboo peg, called kaan and is fitted inside a hole drilled on the bamboo rod. A scroll, mogra, is also tied to the instrument tail. The bow is wooden and bears a curved flourish at one end which is made of metal. In some parts, the bow also features tiny metal bells. The string is traditionally made of horse hair but, sometimes, metal strings and strings made out of wood fibre are also used.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: [Youtube] Pena Demonstration – Pena being revived in Manipur, India ;

Ravanahatha

Name: Ravanahatha.
Type: Chordophone > Lute > Spike > Fiddle > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Tuning: Often in C [Sa].
Country: Asia.
Region: South Asia.

Description: A ravanahatha [in Hindi: रावणहाथा raavanahaatha] whose variant names include: ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron, ravana hasta veena. It is a bowed instrument of ancient origins. It is played in Rajasthan India and Sri Lanka. In Indian and Sri Lankan tradition, the ravanahatha is believed to have originated among the Tamil and Hela people of Lanka during the time of the legendary king Ravana, after whom the instrument is supposedly named.

According to legend, Ravana used the ravanahatha in his devotions to the Hindu God Shiva. In the Hindu Ramayana epic, after the war between Rama and Ravana, Hanuman returned to North India with a ravanahatha. The ravanahatha is particularly popular among street musicians in Rajasthan, North India.

Construction:

Citations: Bibliography: Choudhary S. Dhar 2010. The Origin and Evolution of Violin as a Musical Instrument and Its Contribution to the Progressive Flow of Indian Classical Music: In search of the historical roots of violin – Ramakrisna Vedanta Math – ISBN 9380568061 ; Balachandran, PK 7 February 2011 – A musical instrument played by Ravana Himself! ; New Indian Express. Retrieved 1 May 2013 ;  The Sunday Times, Sri Lanka, 8 March 2015 ; Dinesh records highest sale for an instrumental. Retrieved 16 July 2015 ;