Tag Archives: Double



Name: Qobuz.
Type: Chordophones > Lyres > Double > Chested > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.21.71
Country: Kazakhstan & Turkestan [Xinjiang China].
Region: Central Asia.

Description: The Qobuz [in Kazakh Cyrillic: қобыз] or qıl-qobız. The origins of this instrument are ancient. Traditionally they [Qobuz] were sacred instruments, owned by shamans and bakses who were traditional spiritual medics. According to legends, the qobuz and its music could banish evil spirits, sicknesses and death.

Development: In the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan, during the 1930’s. Development of the Qopuz occurred in a form some what resembling a violin. In construction, appearance range and tuning. Four metal strings were added.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Kurmangazy Kazakh State Academic Orchestra [archived website] ;

Dhodro Banam

Name: Dhodro Banam.
Type: Chordophones > Lyres > Double > Chested > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.21.71
Country: India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The single-stringed dhodro Banam comes from the Indigenous Santal tribal community of Central India. It is found particularly in Orissa. The Phet Banam is a recent development of the dhodro banam although having three to four strings. The Phet banam closely resembles the Nepalese Sarinda although it has a narrow body and wider chest cavities [sound holes].

Construction: The modern form called the Phet Banam and wide “chest cavities” functioning as a sound hole. The neck and body are carved from a single piece of wood. Both the dhodro banam and phet banam have a membrane usually of animal hide stretched over the sound cavity.

Citations: Bibliography: Sachs, Curt. Die Musikinstrumente Indiens und Indonesiens, Berlin & Leipzig, 1923 ; Shirali, Vishnudass Sargam. An Introduction to Indian Music. New Delhi, 1977 ; Chattopadhyaya, Kamaladevi. Tribalism in India. New Delhi, 1978 ; Prasad, Onkar. Santal Music. New Delhi, 1985 ; <strong>Websites:</strong> Metmuseum.org [The Met:  Dhodro Banam photos] ; The Lutes of the Santal by Bengt Fosshag ; Dhodro Banam Performance  [Youtube] ;

Chikari Sarinda

Name: Chikari Sarinda.
Type: Chordophones > Lyres > Double > Chested > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.21.71
Country: Bengal, India & Bangladesh.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The Chikari sarinda [in Bangla; চিকারী সরিন্দা] is a Bengali variety of the saranghi / sarinda sub-groups of bowed chordophones. It has three gut strings and five sympathetic strings. It is held by the left hand while resting against the arm.

Playing techniques: The musician plays it in a manner similar to the Ravanahatha although they are bowed instruments in them selves, they are not related to one another.



Name: Sarinda.
Type: Chordophones > Lyres > Double > Chested.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.71
Specimen: One in collection.
Country: Many, India, Pakistan & Iran.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The sarinda in the following languages [Qeychek, Sarang, Sarinda; in Urdu: sorud سوراخ, soruz سورج]. It is a double-chested is a bowed chordophone that is found through out India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.

It is related in shape to the Nepalese sarinda. The name Qeycheck as applied to this instrument is used in Iran. In North Eastern India [Assam] the name bannam or sareja are used for an identically shaped musical instruments. In Baluchistan and neighbouring Sindh. The name sorundo  [سورانڈو as written in Urdu] is used. In Afghanistan this instrument is primarily played by the Pashtun and Balochi peoples. In Western Rajasthan the sarinda is only played by the Surnaiya Langas. It is played in accompaniment to aerophones mainly flutes or reed instruments [pungi].

Construction: It is made of sheesham wood [Dalbergia sissoo] and has eight strings. Parchment is stretched across the sound whole at the front of the instrument. Eight individual strings pass over the bridge.

Citations: Bibliography: Stanley Sadie – New Grove Dictionary Of Music, Page 297, 298; W. Ousley: Anecdotes of Indian Music, repr. in S.M. Tagore: Hindu Music from Various Authors [Calcutta, 1875], 2/1882/R1965: C. R. Day; The Music and Musical Instruments of Southern India and the Deccan [Dheli, 1891 / R11977]; C. Sash; Die Musikinstrument Indiens and Indonesians [Berlin & Leipzig Germany, 1914, 2 / 1923]; K. S Kothari; Indian Folk Musical Instruments [New Dheli, 1968] – John Baily, Alastair Dick ;


Name: Wankara.
Type: Membranophones > Cylindrical > Drums.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.22
Country: Bolivia & Peru.
Region: South America.

Description: The wankara or wankar is a large double-headed cylindrical membranophone of the Quechua- and Aymara-speaking peoples of the Bolivian Andes.

Construction: The body of the wankara is made from two very thin pieces of wood. It can also be carved from the hollowing out of a tree trunk. One piece, when bent, nearly completes an enclosed cylinder while the while the second piece, is only about [15.24 cm] centimetres or six inches wide, the second piece finishes off the cylinder wall when it is nailed to the ends of the larger piece.

The two open ends are stretched over with a mammal skin membrane [of llama, alpaca, sheep, goat, or calf hide] mounted on a rigid flesh hoop slightly greater in diameter than that of the openings in the shell they cover.

A wooden counter-hoop with the same diameter as the flesh hoop is lapped over each end of the membrane enclosed shell and lacing, made from a long strip of mammal pelt, is looped over the counter-hoop and through and around the flesh-hoop.

Running back and forth along the length of the shell from one counter-hoop to the other in a V-pattern. By pulling on this lacing while the heads are being attached to the shell, downward pressure is placed on the two heads to increase their tension.

Small sliding leather rings encircling two consecutive segments of the lacing can be used to make adjustments to the drumhead tension at the time of performance. A small metal-rimmed pressure hole is situated in the middle of the shell. Two beaters [wajtana or waqtana], the bulbous end maybe made plain

Citation: Bibliography: Websites: Grinnell College Musical Instrument Collection [Wankara Article] ; Oxford Music Online / Grove Music Online ~ wankara [wankarita] by J. Richard, Haefer ;


Name: Dhimay.
Type: Membranophones > Cylindrical > Drums.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.22
Country: Nepal.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The Dhimay, Dhimaya or [in Nepal Bhasa: धिमय्] or Dhime [धिमे] is a large sized double-sided, cylindrical drum. There is a smaller version of this drum sharing the same name in Nepal. During performance this drum is generally accompanied by other idiophones, mostly other percussion instruments depending on local tradition. There are two kinds of dhimay. The smaller ones are called “Dhaacha Dhimay” and bigger dhimay are called “Ma Dhimay”

History: According to local legends, the instrument is believed to be invented by Mahadev. The drum has been played since the Kirat era. The drum is played mostly by Jyapu community. However, Shresthas, Ranjitkars and other castes also play it.

Performance: In Dhimay-ensembles, called Dhimaybaja, the drum is accompanied by cymbals like Bhushyah, Chushyah and sometimes by Tai-nai, a gong-like instrument. At special occasions even the shawm musicians of the Kapali [hon.] or Jugi [coll.] a caste of tailors and professional musicians, may be called.

The Dhimay is also played in the Buddhist Navabaja or Naubaja -Ensembles. Recently, with musicians looking for new ways to develop popular music with its roots in traditional music, the Dhimay is played as a sort of bass drum, accompanying western instruments like guitar.

Construction: The drum is rather large compared to other drums played by the Newars in Nepal. The size of this instrument varies from diameter of 101.6 cm or 40 inches to 129.5 cm or 51 inches, length of 43.1 cm 17 inches to 53.34 cm to 21 inches. The shell of the drum is made of wood or metal.

Sometimes wooden drums are partly covered with metal foil. The shape of old Dhimay drums is mostly irregular, formed by the natural shape of the piece of wood being used to make the drum body. Modern drums are either cylindrical or slightly barrel-shaped. Both heads are made of goat skin. On the inside of the left membrane, called Mankhah [Haima in Bhaktapur] a red tuning paste similar in function to the Syahi is applied for providing a deep sound.

Citations: Bibliography: Wegner, Gert-Matthias 1986: “The Dhimaybaja of Bhaktapur. Studies in Newar Drumming I”. Franz Steiner: Wiesbaden. Prajapati, Subhash Ram 2006 Sanskriti Bhitra. newatech ISBN 979-9994699949 ;