Electrophones

Francis William Galpin provided such a group in his own classification system, which is closer to Mahillon than Sachs-Hornbostel. For example, in Galpin’s 1937 book A Textbook of European Musical Instruments, he lists electrophones with three second-level divisions for sound generation by means of oscillation, electromagnetic and electrostatic.

As well as third tier and fourth tier categories based on the control method. Sachs himself proposed subcategories 51, 52 and 53 on pages 447-467 of his 1940 book. The History of Musical Instruments. However, the original 1914 version of the system did not acknowledge the existence of his 5th category.

Present-day ethnomusicologists, such as Margaret Kartomi [page 173] and Terry Ellingson [PhD dissertation, 1979, p. 544] suggest that, in keeping with the spirit of the original Hornbostel Sachs classification scheme. If one categories musical instruments by their sounds they produce.

That the only subcategory 53 should remain in the electrophones category. Thus it has been more recently proposed that, for example, the pipe organ [even if it uses electric key action to control solenoid valves] remain in the aerophones category, and that the electric guitar remain in the chordophones category, and so on.

Thus, in present-day ethnomusicology, an electrophone is considered to be only musical instruments which produce sound primarily by electrical means. It is usually considered to constitute one of five main categories in the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. Though it is not actually present in the scheme published in 1914.

51 = Electrically actuated acoustic instruments [e.g., pipe organ with electronic tracker action].

52 = Electrically amplified acoustic instruments [e.g., acoustic guitar with pickup].

53 = Electronic instruments driven by oscillation, such as synthesizers and theremins. Kurt Sachs referred to this sub-category as “radio electric” instruments.

Ipu Hokiokio

Name: Ipu Hokiokio.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Hawaii, USA
Region: Pacific Ocean.

Description: The ipu hōkiokio or also ipu hoehoe, pu’a is a vessel nose flute aerophone of the Hawaiian people. The ipu hōkiokio was played as a solo instrument, the performer supposedly imitating the melodic contour of 2, 3 and 4-tone mele ho’oipipo [love chants].

Origins: Vessel nose flutes are not found in other parts of Polynesia, so it has been assumed that the ipu hōkiokio is of Hawaiian invention [Hiroa 1964, p. 393]. However, McLean [1999, p. 496] points out that gourd whistles are found elsewhere in Oceania, but does not explicitly state if they are played as nose flutes. It is at least possible that the gourd whistle or the idea of it might have been introduced to Hawaii by ancient Polynesian voyagers, but it is unclear if the method of sounding it with the nose originates in Hawaii or elsewhere.

The ipu hōkiokio is seldom used today but is still made and easily procurable at hula supply stores, Hawaiian craft fairs and tourist venues, sold as a symbol of ancient Hawaiian culture or as a novelty.

Citations: Bibliography: Emerson, Nathaniel B. 1909 Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office ; Hiroa, Te Rangi [Peter H. Buck] 1964 – Arts and Crafts of Hawaii–IX: Musical Instruments. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press ; McLean, Mervyn. 1999 – Weavers of Song: Polynesian Music and Dance – Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press ; Roberts, Helen H. 1967. Ancient Hawaiian Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc ; Tartar, Elizabeth. 1979. “Ohe hano ihu” in Kanahele, George S. Hawaiian Music and Musicians. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 270-272 ; Websites: Grinnell Instrument Collection / Ipu Hokiokio – Hawaiian Nose Flute [of gourd] ;

Ohe Hano Ihu

Name: Ohe Hano Ihu.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Hawaii, USA
Region: Pacific Ocean.

Description: The ohe hano ihu [translation from Hawaiian: hereafter ‘ohe] is an end-blown nose flute aerophone of the Hawaiian people. Traditionally the Ohe Hano Ihu was used in the rendering of courtship, love poetry. A practice perhaps evolving from the origin myths which a prince was taught how to make and play the ohe’ by a god, played it to attract the attention of a princes. This practice died along ago, with the arrival of missionaries to the Hawaiian islands in the 19th century. The profound changes to traditional Hawaiian culture than ensued.

Repertoire: The ‘ohe was most often played as a solo instrument, the performer supposedly imitating the melodic contour of 2, 3 and four tone mele ho’oipipo [love chants]. However, Tartar [1979: 272] reports that at least in the early 19th century it was used in combination with the membranophone pahu to accompany hula.

Today the ‘ohe is still made and easily procurable at hula supply stores, Hawaiian craft fairs, and tourist venues. They are sold as a symbol of ancient Hawaiian culture or as a novelty. It is occasionally heard on commercial recordings of contemporary Hawaiian popular music.

Construction: This ‘ohe is a length of bamboo 29.21 cm / 11.5 inches with a broad cylindrical bore with an internal diameter of 3.5 cm / 1.4 inches, cut in such a manner as to leave one end closed by a natural node, the other open. The blowhole is located on the sidewall near the closed end, and three finger holes are located further down the body of the flute with a gap of 1.2 inches between them.

Citations: Bibliography: Nathaniel Emerson B. 1909 Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington, D.C – Government Printing Office ; Hiroa, Te Rangi [Peter H. Buck] 1964 – Arts and Crafts of Hawaii – IX: Musical Instruments. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press ; McLean, Mervyn. 1999 – Weavers of Song: Polynesian Music and Dance – Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press ; Roberts, Helen H. 1967. Ancient Hawaiian Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc ; Elizabeth Tartar 1979. “Ohe hano ihu,” in Kanahele, George S. Hawaiian Music and Musicians. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 270-272 ; Websites: Asza.com / Ohe Hano Ihu ; Grinnell Instrument Collection / Ohe Hano Ihu – Hawaiian Nose Flute ;

Tongali

Name: Tongali.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Philippines.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The tongali is a vertical nose flute having four finger holes, this includes the thumb hole at the back of the flute. The kalinga is played by the Kalinga and other peoples in Luzon, Philippines and the ongoing effects of the music department of UP [University of Philippines] Quezon. The tongali is one of numerous traditional instruments that students can study at UP [University of Philippines].

Origin: There are stories from this region that say that the nose flute was used to help rice grow when it was young, as the rice was attracted to the soft sounds of the flute, and would grow to put its ear above the water to hear it better.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com [Tongali Article] ;

Pensol

Name: Pensol.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Malaysia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The pensol is a nose-flute played by the Semang people of Central Malaysia. The pensol is a very thin and quiet instrument. It is unique from other Malaysian nose flutes, in that the last hole is very close to the end of the instrument thereby making the first interval a minor second. Pensol are very rare instruments.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com [Pensol Article] ;

Selingup

Name: Selingup.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Borneo, Malaysia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The selingup or selingut is a nose flute played by the Kayan people of the interior of Sarawak, a province on the Malaysian side of Borneo. Nose flutes in Sarawak were traditionally played by both men and women, as part of the courtship process, and also at funerals to appease the spirits of those that have passed. This instrument is thicker and shorter than neighbouring Kejamin instruments, but has the same sweet sound, and is capable of two octaves.

Citations: Bibliography: Discography: The album Pan Records 2067CD Sawaku, Music of Sarawak, features a track by Ajang playing the selingup. Mering and Ajang are two of the last good nose flute players in the region : Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ [selingup article] asza.com ;

 

 

Dulali

Name: Dulali.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Nose.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Fiji
Region: Oceania & Pacific Islands.

Description: The dulali is a nose flute that is played in Fiji. It is known by many names, its over-all length ranges from 35 cm to 70 cm and 3 cm to 6 cm in diameter. The dulali is made of a single internode of bamboo. It is closed at both ends by the nodes, and has four to nine finger holes spaced in an equidistant manner along the length. Often three additional holes evenly spaced around the midpoint. It is probable that it functions as a vessel flute.

Some examples in museums show burned-in decorations. Fijian nose flutes are now almost obsolete. Formerly, they accompanied certain meke dances and women singing – entertainment for chiefs – and it is said that the music had the power to attract women. Music recorded in 1972 was based on a three-tone scale, but it must have been possible to play more notes. Nose flutes also existed on Tahiti, Samoa, Tonga, and other Pacific islands.

Citations: Bibliography: article by Raymond Ammann ; P. Crowe: ‘Nose Flute Music of Fiji’, Domodomo: Fiji Museum Quarterly… ; Websites: MIMO Article / Dulali ; Babasiga [blogger] Fijian Nose Flute ;

Dhodro Banam

Name: Dhodro Banam.
Type: Chordophones > Lyres > Double > Chested > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.21.71
Country: India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The single-stringed dhodro Banam comes from the Indigenous Santal tribal community of Central India. It is found particularly in Orissa. The Phet Banam is a recent development of the dhodro banam although having three to four strings. The Phet banam closely resembles the Nepalese Sarinda although it has a narrow body and wider chest cavities [sound holes].

Construction: The modern form called the Phet Banam and wide “chest cavities” functioning as a sound hole. The neck and body are carved from a single piece of wood. Both the dhodro banam and phet banam have a membrane usually of animal hide stretched over the sound cavity.

Citations: Bibliography: Sachs, Curt. Die Musikinstrumente Indiens und Indonesiens, Berlin & Leipzig, 1923 ; Shirali, Vishnudass Sargam. An Introduction to Indian Music. New Delhi, 1977 ; Chattopadhyaya, Kamaladevi. Tribalism in India. New Delhi, 1978 ; Prasad, Onkar. Santal Music. New Delhi, 1985 ; <strong>Websites:</strong> Metmuseum.org [The Met:  Dhodro Banam photos] ; The Lutes of the Santal by Bengt Fosshag ; Dhodro Banam Performance  [Youtube] ;

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