Name: Hummel.
Type: Chordophones > Zither > Box > Fretted.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 314.122.4
Country: Sweden.
Region: Scandinavia & Northern Europe.

Description: The hummel [or humle] is a plucked, fretted, zither; whose name is an onomatopoeic probably derived from the [Dutch “hommelen” to ‘hum’ or ‘buzz’]. It is used in the low countries adjacent parts of Germany and also in Scandinavia. This instrument has its origins in the Scheitholt and the French Epinet De Vosges whose examples from the 17th century greatly resemble.

Playing Techniques: The fretted strings are stopped ad all strings sounded by the same method. Using a small pencil-stub sized stick to produce the notes when plucking the strings. Sometimes the Hummel was played with a bow in Friesland and the Low Country region of Holland and Germany.

Construction: Over time, the shape and design of the hummel has evolved from trapeziform, rectangular and in the shape of a fiddle, viol or a half bottle. The fretting of the hummel is diatonic and also bares up to 12 extra bourdons arranged in double or triple courses and attached to metal wrist pins. The design is identical to the French, Epinet Des Vosges, Scheitholt and Hungarian citera.

Citations: Bibliography: K. Douwe: ondersoek Grondig van tonen der musijk, Franezer, 1699 / R 1971 ; S. Walin: Die Schwedische Hummel  / in English: The Swedish Hummel [Stockholm, 1953] ; F. J. de Han: Folk Instruments of Belgum, Part One, GSJm xxv 1972, 112 ;


Name: Sarinda.
Type: Chordophones > Lyres > Double > Chested.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.71
Specimen: One in collection.
Country: Many, India, Pakistan & Iran.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The sarinda in the following languages [Qeychek, sarang, sarinda; in Urdu sorud سوراخ, soruz سورج]. It is a double-chested is a bowed chordophone that is found through out India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.

It is related in shape to the Nepalese sarinda. The name Qeycheck as applied to this instrument is used in Iran. In North Eastern India [Assam] the name bannam or sareja are used for an identically shaped musical instruments. In Baluchistan and neighbouring Sindh. The name sorundo  [سورانڈو as written in Urdu] is used. In Afghanistan this instrument is primarily played by the Pashtun and Balochi peoples. In Western Rajasthan the sarinda is only played by the Surnaiya Langas. It is played in accompaniment to aerophones mainly flutes or reed instruments [pungi].

Construction: It is made of sheesham wood [Dalbergia sissoo] and has eight strings. Parchment is stretched across the sound whole at the front of the instrument. Eight individual strings pass over the bridge.

Citations: Bibliography: Stanley Sadie – New Grove Dictionary Of Music, Page 297, 298; W. Ousley: Anecdotes of Indian Music, repr. in S.M. Tagore: Hindu Music from Various Authors (Calcutta, 1875, 2/1882/R1965: C. R. Day; The Music and Musical Instruments of Southern India and the Deccan [Dheli, 1891/R11977]; C. Sash; Die Musikinstrument Indiens and Indonesians [Berlin & Leipzig Germany, 1914, 2/1923]; K. S Kothari; Indian Folk Musical Instruments [New Dheli, 1968] – John Baily, Alastair Dick ;


Name: Haegeum.
Type: Chordophones > Spike > Fiddles > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.313.7
Country: Korea.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The haegeum [in Hangul: 해금 haegeum] It is also popularly known as kkangkkang-i [in Hangul: 깡깡이], kkaengkkaeng-i [in Hangul: 깽깽이], or aeng-geum [in Hangul: 앵금]. As such it is a traditional bowed vertically held stringed instrument played in Korea. The haegeum is one of the most widely played instruments in Korean music. It is used n court music as well as madagnori [commoner’s or ordinary people’s music].

History: Little recorded information exists about the exact era when the haegeum was introduced into Korea. According to several sources; references to the haegeum can be found in the hanlimbyeolgok [the unrhymed verse and songs of the royal scholars] made in the Goryeo dynasty, so it can be inferred that the haegeum has been played at least since then.

The sohaegeum [소해금] is a modernized fiddle with four strings, used only in North Korea and in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China.

Construction: The haegeum is made using eight sonorous materials within the Chinese classification system of music. The materials included are metal, stone, silk, bamboo, gourd, clay, hide, and wood, and so it is called paleum [eight sounds]. The haegeum is about 70 cm in length from body to tuning pegs. Each of the two pegs are 2.5 cm diameter 11 cm in length. The sound box or body has has a surface of paulownia [Paulownia tomentosa] wood at the front. The sound box is open at the rear. The pegs have spools which access string is wound.

Citations: Bibliography: Song Hyon ed. Akhak Kwebōm [Guide To The Study Of Music] Seoul, 1943 / R1975, 7-8am9a ; Chang Sa-Hun; Han’guk akki taegwan [Korean Musical Instruments] Seoul, 1969, p 611 ; Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary of Music Book G to O Page 116 ; Websites: Doosan Encyclopedia / Haegeum [article] Translated from Korean in Google Translate ;


Name: Chalumeau.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Single.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.211.2
Country: France, Germany & England.
Region: Continental Europe.

Description: The chalumeau [in English: in IPA: /ˈʃæləmoʊ/; in French: in IPA: ʃ]; plural chalumeau] is a single-reed woodwind instrument of the late baroque and early classical eras. The chalumeau is a folk instrument that is the predecessor to the modern-day clarinet. It has a cylindrical bore with eight tone holes, seven in front and one in back for the thumb.

The chalumeau has a broad mouthpiece with a single heteroglot reed [i.e. not a continuous part of the instrument’s body] made of cane. Similar to the clarinet, the chalumeau over blows a twelfth.

Etymology: The word chalumeau first begins to appear in writing during the 1630s, but may have been in use as early as the twelfth century. Several French dictionaries in the sixteenth century use the word to refer to various types of simple, idioglot reed-pipes all with tone holes.

The heteroglot style reed was later adopted in the seventeenth and into the eighteenth centuries. These single-pipe instruments probably evolved from earlier multiple-pipe instruments through the abandonment of the drone tube.

Usage: The use of the chalumeau originated in France and later spread to Germany by the late seventeenth century. By 1700, the chalumeau was an established instrument on the European musical scene. Around this time, well-known Nuremberg instrument maker Johann Christoph [J.C.] Denner made improvements to the chalumeau, eventually developing it into the Baroque clarinet.

The chalumeau is distinguished by two keys, thought to be added by Denner, cover tone holes drilled diametrically to each other. The position of these tone holes prohibits the instrument from overblowing, limiting its range to only twelve notes. In order to counteract the limited range, multiple sizes of chalumeau were produced ranging from bass to soprano.

Citations: Bibliography: Birsak, K. 1994 ~ The Clarinet: A Cultural History. Buchloe: Druck und Verlag Obermayer GmbH. Hoeprich, E. 2008 ; The Clarinet. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press ; Rice, A.R. 1992 ; the Baroque Clarinet. New York, NY: Oxford University Press ; Kroll, O. 1968 ~ The Clarinet. New York, NY: Taplinger Publishing Company “Tupian Chalumeaus”. Tupian Chalumeaus ;


Name: Hitoyogiri.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Notched.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Period: Edo 1603-1868.
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The Hitoyogiri [in Japanese: ] alternate names for the hitoyogiri include, tanteki, kotake and dōsho. The name hitoyogiri “hito meaning “one”, “yo” meaning “node” and “giri” meaning “cutting”, it is the flute to which the Japanese Shakuhachi descended from. The playing of the Fuke Shakuhachi was restricted to members of the fuke sect of Zen, according to a law. As an end result the Hitoyogiri became popular during the Edo period 1603-1868 for use with in urban music.

Construction:The hitoyogiri is constructed from the same bamboo that the fuke-shakuhachi is made from. The bamboo made for the hitoyogiri are at a higher section of the stock. Only one bamboo node exists throughout the process of making the instrument. The hitoyogiri is made from a straight piece of bamboo. The hitoyogiri was made in several sizes although gradually the length became standardized to 34 cm.

Both the hitoyogiri and the fuke shakuhachi have four finger holes and a thumb hole. They are played in a vertical manner and a notch is cut at the rim. The hitoyogiri became extinct when the shakuhachi developed into its final form.

Citations: Bibliography: W. P. Malm: Japanese Music and Musical Instruments: Rutland, Vermont, 1959, 151 ; S. Kishibe: The Traditional Music of Japan, Tokyo 1966, 2 / 1981 pl. 52 ~ David W. Hughes, Stanley Sadie New Grove Dictionary Of Musical Instruments Page 224; Websites: Met Museum [Hitoyogiri article] ;


Name: Fangxiang.
Type: Idiophones > Percussion > Metallophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.221.42
Bayin: 石 shi / stone.
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The fangxiang [in Chinese: fang xiang 方响 or fang hsiang 方響 in Chinese, pinyin: fāngxiǎng] is organized and suspended [bianxuan]. It is a metallophone that has been used for over 1,000 years. The fangxiang is the only instrument type that is found in the Stone category of the eight sounds. It was first used in the Liang Dynasty [502—557 CE] and then standardized in the Sui and Tang dynasties mostly for court music.

History: In ancient times, the fangxiang was a popular instrument in Chinese court music. It was introduced to Korea, where it is called banghyang [hangul: 방향; hanja: 方響] and is still used in the court music of Korea. A similar instrument used in Japan is called the hōkyō [kanji: 方響]. The first time that fangxiang shown up in Liang Period in the Northern and Southern Period [502-557].

During the Sui and Tang dynasties [581-840], the instrument got developed and became popular in the court. There were many famous fangxiang performers at that time, including Xianqi Ma and Bing Wu. Also at that time, there were many poets making ancient Chinese poems to accompany with the fangxiang performance.

Expansion & Development: In the 1980s, the fangxiang was expanded to include 51 soundboards. The soundboards were arranged based on twelve-tone equal temperament and double scale arrangement. On the top lane, it is the C# scale, and on the bottom lane it is the C major scale ranging from f to C4. The shelf used for holding those soundboards can rise up and fall down for the convenience of performing.

The new design of the fangxiang sounds clear and melodious, and it is really good for accompaniments in the Chinese traditional orchestra music. For example, in the music “The Great Wall Capriccio”, it is used to sound like a bell. The fangxiang was used by the American composer Lou Harrison in his Music for Violin with Various Instruments: European, Asian and African [1967, revised 1969]. Harrison had taken research trips to Japan and South Korea 1961 and Taiwan 1962.

Citations: Bibliography: Fangxiang [方响] Websites : China Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013 ; Archived from the original on 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2013-09-17 ; The Oxford Companion To Music by Percy Scholes 1956 ed. Oxford University Press. p. 481 ; Chinese Musical Instruments by Alan Thrasher 2000 New York, Oxford University Press Inc, p. 16. ISBN 0-19-590777-9 ; Marching to the beat of a Chinese drum Retrieved 23 September 2013 Translation from “方响 [fāng Xiǎng] .方响_百度百科. Web. 17 Sept. 2013 ; Linfair Records / R2G Music. ASIN B005M1DUPE.


Name: Daphri.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Frame.
Hornbostel-Sachs#: 211.311
Country: Gujarat, India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The daphri or dimadī is a small wooden frame drum of Gujarat and Maharashtra, Western India. The daphri is used to accompany folk song and dance. The khanjari of Nepal is a similar instrument. The daphri maybe held by one hand played any part of the other hand. It may also be simply shaken.

Construction: Analogous to the larger daph it has metal discs suspended on pins in slits on the frame, which are about 15 cm in diameter. A membrane of lizard skin is stretched on one side.

Citations: Bibliography: Jonathan Katz, Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary Of Music, Book A to F Vol. 3 Page 546 ; Websites:


The alternate guitar tunings as represented on this page from the Samoan slack key tradition of Igi Le.

1.) Standard Tuning E / A / D / G / B / E called “Ki Sepaniolo” meaning “Spanish Tuning” or “Standard Tuning” and is mainly played in the key of C.

2.) Open G Major tuning D / G / D / G / B / D in Hawaiian slack key it is called the Tarro Patch tuning. In Samoa it is called “Ki Tu Fa” which probably means “Fourth Position Key”.

3.) A variation of the G Major Tuning G / F / D / G / B / D called “Sui Ki A Le Ki Tu Fa” meaning “Slack Key of the Open G” – and “sui” means “change” or “weaken”, which could also be taken to mean “slack”.

4.) D Wahine Tuning D / A / D / F# / A / C# sometimes called “Ki Salamo” and also “Reptance Tuning”.  This tuning was likely introduced originally from Hawaiian Slack Key.

5.) The Sui Ki Maualuga or High Slack Key tuning in Hawaiian Slack Key is C / G / C / G / A / E as used by Leonard Kwan. Also the Hawaiian Slack Key guitarist Sonny Chillingworth used a C Mauna Loa Tuning that he called the Samoan Mauna Loa Tuning F / G / C / G / C / E – on the Samoan song “Let Me Hear You Whisper” on his
recording Sonny Solo. Note the tunings are similar to one another.

6.) There is an undocumented tuning called “Ki Tu Lua” or the “Second Position Key”. It is speculated that this tuning could be the F Wahine tuning C / F / C / G / C / E  for reference the Hawaiian Slack Key guitarist Sonny Chillingworth occasionally played in a C major tuning that he called the “Samoan C major tuning F / G / C / G / C / E.

Samoan Guitar Tunings
Name Nomenclature Region Tunings
Ki Sepaniolo Standard * E / A / D / G / B / E
Ki Ta Lua   C / F / C / G / C / E
Sui Ki Maualuga High Slack Key C6 C / G / C / G / A / C 
Sui Ki Maualuga High Slack Key C / G / C / G / A / E
Ki Ta Lua Second Position Key C / G / C / G / C / E
Ki Tu Lua Second Position Key F / G / C / G / C / E 
Sui Ki A Le Ki Tu Fa Slack Key Open G G / F / D / G / B / D
Ki Salamo Repentance Tuning D Maj 7 D / A / D / F# / A / C#
Ki Tu Fa Open G Major G  D / G / D / G / B / D

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: [Slack Key Guitar, Book 1 pdf file] ;

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