Name: Kaliyuka.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Russia.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The kalyuka [or Kolyuka in Russian: Калюка, Колюка] is a Russian and Ukrainian overtone flute, lacking playing holes. In Eastern traditions, Kalyuka were played on summer evenings after the hay was harvested from suitable crops with a scythe.

The kalyuka player was often accompanied by percussionists who kept pace with the melody. The existence of the tradition was uncovered in 1980 by students of the Moscow and St. Petersburg Conservatories.

Playing Technique: The upper end of the Kalyuka is open, and although it has a built-in fipple to produce sound, a player should also partly close the opening of the tube with the tongue. The lower end of the tube is also open and occasionally there is a small side hole near the end. The side hole and/or end are opened and closed while playing to produce different notes [like the Slovak Koncovka]. Higher tones are reached through over blowing.

Construction: Traditionally, Kalyukas were made from hollow plant stems, such as Motherwort, or Angelica. Modern versions of the instrument are usually made from PVC [Poly Vinyl Chloride] an inexpensive and durable substitute.

Citations: Bibliography ; Иванов А.Н. Волшебная флота южнорусского фольклора. Сохранирование и возведение фольклорных традиций. 2-е издание. Москва, 1993 ; Банин А.А. Русская инструментальная музыка фольклорной традиции. Москва, 1997. [с.85] ; Ivanov A.N. The magical flute of South Russian folklore. Preservation and erection of folklore traditions. 2nd edition. Moscow, 1993; Banin A.A. Russian instrumental music of folk tradition. Moscow, 1997. [p.85] ;


Name: Rondador.
Type: Aerophones > Panflutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.112.11
Country: Ecuador.
Region: South America.

Description: The rondador is a set of panpipes whose tubes are arranged in a manner that allows for the playing of chords up to at least two to three notes in a single breath depending on the diameter of tube.

The rondador consists of cane tubes arranged in parallel side by side allowing chords to be played. The rondador is played by blowing across the top of the instrument. The Rondador is considered a national instrument of Ecuador.

Citations: Bibliography: Bishop, Douglas. “A Worldwide History of the Panflute”. Retrieved December 26, 2007. This family of pan flutes has many representatives: antara [Quechua] or siku [Aymara], chuli, sanka, malta [the most common variety of siku], toyo [bass siku], and rondador [Ecuador‘s national instrument, a chorded pan flute]. Sergeant, Winthrop [April 1934]. “Types of Quechua Melody” ;


Name: Bedug.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Barrel.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.22
Country: Indonesia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The bedug [in Indonesian: beduk; in Javanese: bedhug] is one of the drums used in the gamelan. It is used among Muslims in Java for religious purposes. The bedhug is large double-barrel shaped drum having water buffalo leather stretched on either side. Unlike the more frequently used kendang, the bedug is suspended from a rap and played with a padded mallet. The drum has pegs holding the two identical heads in place similar to the Japanese taiko.

Citations: Bibliography: Rasmussen, Anne K. [2010] ; Women, the Recited Qur’an, and Islamic Music in Indonesia. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25549-4 ; Muhaimin, Abdul Ghoffir [2006] ; The Islamic traditions of Cirebon: ibadat and adat among Javanese Muslims. ANU E Press. ISBN 978-1-920942-30-4 ; Lindsay, Jennifer. Javanese Gamelan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1979. ISBN 0-19-580413-9. Page 47 ; George, Kenneth M. 2010. Picturing Islam: Art and Ethics in a Muslim Lifeworld. John Wiley and Sons. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-4051-2957-2 ; Websites ;


Name: Bas.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 423.121.12
Country: Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The bas is a bamboo trumpet that is played by the Toraja people who reside in central Sulawesi. In Ambon, where the ensemble is said to have originated, the bas is called a pompang

Construction: The bas about 20 cm in length and 1 cm wide. It is attached just above the node at the bottom to a horizontal tube, about 9 cm by 1 cm. This in turn is attached to ached to another vertical tube, about 36 cm by 3 cm, closed by a node at the bottom.

The measurements provided are for the smallest bas played in the ensemble. The largest bas is about 135 cm in. Length. Producing a single low-pitched tone. Various sizes of bas provide the main harmonic element in the Bas-suling ensemble.

Citations: Bibliography: Margret J. Kartomi ~ Stanley Sadie – New Grove Dictionary of Music, Book A to F, page 166 : Pompang bas instrumentalia toraja [Youtube Video] :


Name: Trembita.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 423.121.12
Country: Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The trembita whose name originates from the old germanic “trumba”, “to trumpet”. It is an alpine horn that is made of wood. It is common among Ukrainian highlanders Hutsuls who used to live in western Ukraine, eastern Poland, Slovakia and northern Romania. In southern Poland it’s called trombita, bazuna in the North and ligawka in central Poland.

Used primarily by mountain dwellers known as Hutsuls and Gorals in the Carpathian Mountains, it was used as a signalling device to announce deaths, funerals, weddings. It is also used by shepherds for signalling and communication in the forested mountains and for guiding sheep and dogs.

Construction: The tube is made from a long straight piece of pine or spruce, preferably one that has been struck by lightning. Which is split in two in order to carve out the core. The halves are once again joined together and then wrapped in birch bark or osier rings.

Citations: Bibliography: Humeniuk, A Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty Kiev, Naukova dumka 1967 ; Mizynec, Victor ; Folk instruments of Ukraine. Doncaster 1987 Bayda Books ISBN 0-908480-19-9 OCLC 19355447 ; Cherkasky, Leonid Musiiovych 2003 ; Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty, Kiev, Tekhnika. ISBN 966-575-111-5. OCLC 56112444 ;


Name: Kangling.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 432.121.14
Country: Tibet.
Region: China, Far East Asia.

Description: Kangling [in Tibetan: རྐང་གླིང་།, Wylie: rkang-gling], literally translated as “leg” [kang] “flute” [ling], is the Tibetan name for a trumpet or horn made out of a human femur, used in Tibetan Buddhism for various chöd rituals as well as funerals performed by a chöpa.

Religious Use: The kangling should only be used in chöd rituals performed outdoors with the chöd damaru and bell. In Tantric chöd practice, the practitioner, motivated by compassion, plays the kangling as a gesture of fearlessness, to summon hungry spirits and demons so that she or he may satisfy their hunger and thereby relieve their sufferings.

It is also played as a way of “cutting off of the ego”. A minor figure from Katok Monastery, the First Chonyi Gyatso, Chopa Lugu [17th – mid-18th century], is remembered for his “nightly bellowing of bone-trumpet [kangling] and shouting of phet” on pilgrimage, much to the irritation of the business traveler who accompanied him. Chopa Lugu became renowned as “The Chod Yogi Who Split a Cliff in China [rgya nag brag bcad gcod pa].

Citations: Bibliography: New Grove Dictionary of Music by Stanley Sadie page 252 Rkang-gling [Tibetan trumpet] ; Vandor: Bouddhisme Tibétan, Paris, 1976. O.C. Handa 2005. Buddhist Monasteries of Himachal; Indus Publishing Company. p. 320. ISBN 81-7387-170-1 ; Andrea Loseries-Leick 2008; Tibetan Mahayoga Tantra: An Ethno Historical Study of Skulls, Bones and Relics. B.R. Pub. Corp. p. 225. Chhosphel, Samten [December 2011]; “The First Chonyi Gyatso, Chopa Lugu”. The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-10-08 ;

Gendang Beleq

Name: Gendang Beleq.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Barrel.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.22
Country: Indonesia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The gendang beleq is a dance and performance from Lombok Island, Indonesia. It is a performance popular among the Sasak people. The ensemble for gandang beleq performances consists of the main players, two or occasionally four large gendang drums.

They are followed in accompaniment by gong players, suling [flute] and hand held kettle-gong similar to bonang and many sets of cymbals [Ceng-Ceng]. The size of the ensemble is usually 12 to 15 persons, with three people to carry and play the heavy gong.

Etymology: The name gendang beleq is a Sasak language term, which means “big drum [big gendang]”. It is also the name donating a performance is about a group of musicians playing, dancing and marching with their traditional instruments, centred on two big drum gendang players.

The Gendang Beleq Ensemble: The ensemble for gandang beleq performances consists of the main players, two or occasionally four large gendang drums. They are followed in accompaniment by gong players, suling [flute] and hand held kettle-gong similar to bonang and many sets of cymbals [Ceng-Ceng]. The size of the ensemble is usually 12 to 15 persons, with three people to carry and play the heavy gong.

In a Gendang beleq performance, the drummers carry and play the gendang and dance a dramatic and confrontational duet. Interlocking rhythms are played by the drummers. Stamina and agility ar required to perform the dance and marching with their instruments.

Gendang beleq can be performed during life-cycle ceremonies, such as celebration of birth, circumcision, wedding and funeral. It can also be performed in a ceremony to invoke rainfall or in a celebrations for national holidays.

The player for the ensemble is called sekehe. The ensemble is composed of males only usually young boys. There are many gendang beleq clubs throughout Lombok. These clubs are supported and sponsored by the Indonesian government as a way to promote Sasak culture and to involve the youth in cultural activities. The clubs usually practice once a week. During performances, the players will use colourful traditional Sasak dress, which is similar to the related Balinese dress.

Citations: Bibliography: Thomasson-Croll, Mary Justice 2010 ; Frommer’s Bali & Lombok ; Frommer’s. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-470-49776-0 ; Salam, Solichin 1992 ; Lombok pulau perawan: sejarah dan masa depannya. Kuning Mas. p. 85 ; Harnish, David D. 2006 ; Bridges to the ancestors: music, myth, and cultural politics at an Indonesian festival. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2914-8 ; Adiati, Tingka; Asmoro, Rudi. “Gendang Beleq, Si Gendang Besar”. Indonesia ; Miller, Terry E.; Sean Williams 2008. The Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music. Routledge. pp. PA401. ISBN 978-0-415-96075-5 ;


Name: Mridangam.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Barrel.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.22
Country: India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The Mridangam [in Hindi: मृदंगम alternative spellings include mrdangam, mridanga or mrdanga] It is a double sided barrel drum having ancient origins. The mridangam played in Carnatic music of southern India. The mridangam evolved to be made of different kinds of wood due to its increased durability.

The mrdingam was believed that its holy sound will deflect enemy arrows and protect the King. During the post-Sangam period, as mentioned in the epic Silappadikaram, it formed a part of the antarakoṭṭu – a musical ensemble at the beginning of dramatic performances that would later develop into Bharathanatyam. The player of this instrument held the title tannumai, aruntozhil, mutalvan.

In Tamil culture, the mrdingam is called a tannumai [in Tamil: தண்ணுமை tannumai]. The earliest mention of the mridangam in Tamil literature is found perhaps in the Sangam literature where the instrument is known as ‘tannumai’. In later works like the Silappadikaram also we find detailed references to it as in the Natyasastra. During the Sangam period, it was one of the principal percussion instruments to sound the beginning of war along with murasu, tudi and parai.

It is widely believed that the tabla, the mridangam’s Hindustani musical counterpart, was first constructed by splitting a mridangam in half. With the development of the mridangam came the tala [rhythm] system.

Mrdingam in Nepal: In Nepal the Mridangam has a large role in Newari music. One of the earliest Nepal Bhasa manuscripts on music is a treatise on this instrument called Mridanga anukaranam. The importance of a beating has changed over the years. In the old days, percussionists only used to accompany the lead player like the vocalist but this time their development is not restricted to accompaniment only but also to play one instrument shows.

Construction: The body of the mrdingam  is constructed from wood of the jackfruit [Artocarpus heterophyllus].  A removable patch of tuning paste is affixed to each end, giving the drum a definite pitch. The left head is usually tuned an octave lower than the right. The drum is held across the lap and played on both ends with the hands and fingers. A similar instrument, the pakhawaj, is played in the Hindustani tradition of northern India, as well as in Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Citations: Bibliography: Nepalbhasa sahitya ya itihaas, Author: Prof. Premshanti Tuladhar, Publication: Nepalbhasa Academy, ISBN 978-99933-56-00-4; Cuntaram, Pi. Em., Kalākēndra, T. 2010. Great layavadyakaaraas of Karnatak music. Percussive Art Centre ; Kalakshetra vol 8. p. 49 ; Surabhi: Sreekrishna Sarma felicitation. Prof. E.R. Sreekrishna Sarma Felicitation Committee. 1983. p. 90 ; T.S. Parthasarathy. “BHARATANATYAM IN HISTORY”. Carnatica.net. Retrieved 26 February 2013 ; Iḷaṅkōvaṭikaḷ, Daniélou A. 1965 ; Shilappadikaram: The Ankle Bracelet. New Directions Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 0811200019. Viswanathan, Lakshmi 1984. Bharatanatyam, the Tamil heritage. Sri Kala Chakra Trust. p. 23. Tamil Studies, Volume 3. International Institute of Tamil Historical Studies. 1983. p. 36. Raman and Kumar 1920, Musical drums with harmonic overtones. Nature [London] 104 500, 453-454 ; Raman 1935 ; The Indian musical drums. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A1 179-188 Padma Shri Awards 2000–09 ;


Type: Membranophones > Drums > Hourglass.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.242.12
Country: Nigeria, Cuba, Many.
Regions: Africa & Caribbean.

Description: A batá drum is a large double-headed hourglass drum with one larger head on the right or top side and on the left or bottom side is the smaller head. It is primarily used for religious and semi-religious purposes for the religion for the Yoruba in Nigeria. It is used by worshipers of Santeria in Cuba, Puerto Rico and in United States. Its original functions are connected to different deities, a drum used by royalty, a drum used in ancestral veneration and drum of the politicians.

Use in Cuba: The Batá slowly became inducted into the Cuban culture after time, and began to be played in a secular manner. The Batá were first publicly performed in 1935 in a broadcast over Cuban radio for purposes of folklore music. Uses such as this have grown as knowledge of the instrument has spread; more and more musicians not currently practising Lukumí have used versions of the drums in recordings or performances.

The Lucumi & Santeria: The Lucumi or Santeria and its use of Bata drums are closely associated. The Bata are played simultaneously, often with a rattle or “atchere” to create polyrhythmic compositions, or “toques” during Santería ceremonies. A ceremony with batá drums is generally known as a “toque”, “tambor de santo” or “bembé” but ceremonies can also be accompanied by shaken gourd-rattle “chékere” [in English “shekere”] ensembles usually with tumbadora, also called conga drums. There are estimated to be at least 140 different toques for the spirits [saints or santos] and their different manifestations.

There are two important “rhythm suites” that use the sacred batá drums. The first is called “Oru del Igbodu” [a liturgical set of rhythms] alternatively called “Oru Seco” literally “Dry Oru” or a sequence of rhythms without vocals, which is usually played at the beginning of a “tambor de santo” that includes 23 standard rhythms for all the orishas. The selections of the second suite include within them the vocal part to be performed by a vocalist / chanter [akpwon] who engages those attending the ceremony in an African call-and-response style.

The musical experience in which a ritual is acted out wherein an “initiate” one who through the great spirit Añá is granted the ability to perfectly play the Batá drums. Plays the new Batá set, and thereafter is introduced to the old Batá set. This is said to “transfer” [through the initiate] the spirit or Añá of the drums from the old set into the new set.

Certain long-standing rules and rituals govern the construction, handling, playing, and care of the sacred batá: traditionally only non-castrated male deer or goat hide was used—female goats along with bulls, cows, and sheep were considered unsuitable; also only an initiate was considered worthy to touch or play the batá as only they have undergone the full ritual of “receiving Añá” granting them the forces deemed necessary to play the drums. Also, before a ceremony, the drummers would wash themselves in omiero, a cleansing water, pray and for some time abstain from sex.

Also traditionally in Cuba, in Havana the batá are rarely played after sundown, while in Matanzas toque ceremonies often begin at night. This apparent contradiction is not the only one reaching both adherents of Lukumí and others interested in African music, religion and culture. The Cuban style of playing the drums is similar, but in some musical contexts different rhythms may be used.

Adherents to Lukumí believe that certain sacred rhythms performed on the batá contain the levels of spiritual forces required to allow such impassioned ritual music to summon Orishas, who in turn inhabit or possess [more in the sense of angelic rather than demonic possession] one or more of the followers gathered for worship and / or participating in the ritual.

Followers of Lukumí believe that Orishas are responsible for control of all natural and life-related forces, however the most-frequently stated primary purpose of the batá is simply for glorification of the deified Changó, also known as “The Great Spirit” or less ceremoniously as thunder and lightning. Hence such ceremonies and rituals are often performed for blessing important life transitions and events like weddings, relocations, passage to the afterlife, or other events and festivities.

The Bata in use outside of Lukumi: In the last few decades, the popularity of the batá drums has increased worldwide so significantly that they have begun to be produced in greater numbers both by large western drum companies and individual artisans in Africa using a variety of “non-traditional” materials even including fibreglass drums, some instrument builders preferring cow skins or even synthetic membranes, while some traditionalists may express disdain for this trend and insist upon strict orthodoxy.

Whereas others and newcomers embrace the unique tonal ranges of the drums purely for their abstract musical possibilities without observance of traditional rules and rituals. These seemingly conflicting points of view remain paradoxical within the musical “landscape”, as has been the global evolution of the Indian Tabla, both families of percussion instruments finding application in often surprisingly diverse musical settings far from their roots, although batá perhaps having a closer religious affinity with Lukumí than tabla is with Hinduism.

Construction: In Cuba, the batá consists of a set of three tapered cylinders of various sizes. Iyá, the largest, is referred to as “mother drum”. Itótele, the middle one, and Okónkolo, the smallest, are called “father” and “baby”, respectively. In Nigeria, there are five sizes of batá, which can be played either by hand, or using a leather play strap.

In Matanzas, the older Batá lineages play with one hand and the sole of a shoe or other improvised strap. In Cuba, it is common to see the drums decorated with small bells and chimes, which are called Saworoide or “Saworo” in Yorubaland and Chaworoide or “Chaworo” in Cuba; such bells are attached to one or two “igbaju” leather straps for mounting on the Iya. The larger drum head is called the “enu”, while the smaller is the “chacha”.

In Yoruba land, Bata drum has different parts which are: 1] Igi Ilu: This is the wooden frame work of the drum. 2] Leather: This is the part of the drum that bring out the tone of the drum. There are two piles of leathers in a Bata drum. One is to bring out the tone of the drum, while the other is to cover the one that brings out the tone of the drum. 3] Egi Ilu: This helps to hold the leather firm to the wooden frame. it is usually constructed with the use of small bunch of thick brooms also known as Igbale gbaro. The brooms are curved to take the proper shape and size of the top and bottom of the wooden frame of the drum. After the sizes have been obtained, strong threads are used to tighten the bunch of thick brooms.

After that, pieces of cloths are used to cover the tighten brooms to beautify it. 4] Osan: This is made from thick leather. This serves as the wire work of the drum. It helps in holding both the leather and Egi Ilu in place. 5] Iro: This is the black substance that is found on the surface of the leather of Bata drum. It primary purpose is to vary the tones from different faces of the drum. It is usually obtained from a tree.

All the faces of bata have this substance apart from the face that is called Ako- this face gives the highest tone in the drum. 6] Bulala: This is also made of thick leather. it is used to play the drum. Nowadays, flexible plastics are being cut to look like leather bulala. This flexible plastics can also be used to play the drum. 7] Cowry: This is always inserted into Bata drums. People call it Ayan.

Citations: Bibliography: Mason, John 1992 Orin Orisa: Songs for Selected Heads, Brooklyn, NY: Yoruba Theological Archministry ; Amira, John, & Steven Cornelius [re-issued 1999] The Music Of Santería: Traditional Rhythms Of The Batá Drums: The Oru Del Igbodu, White Cliffs Media Ajayi, Omofolabo S. 1998 Yoruba Dance: The Semiotics of Movement and Body Attitude in a Nigerian Culture, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press ; Debra, L. Klein 2007 Yoruba Bata Goes Global, University of Chicago Press, p. 166 ; Websites: Article By Bode Omojola ;


Name: Ruan.
Type: Cordophones > Composites > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Bayin: 絲 Silk.
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Descriptions: The ruan [in Chinese: 阮; pinyin: ruǎn] is a traditional Chinese plucked instrument. It is a lute having a fretted neck, circular body and four strings. It is sometimes called ruanqin, particularly in Taiwan.

History: The Ruan has a history over 2,000 years. The earliest form of the ruan maybe the qin pipa [秦琵琶] which was then later developed in the ruanxian [named after the Ruan Xian, 阮咸]. Shortened to Ruan [阮]. In old Chinese texts from the Han to the Tang dynasty, the term pipa was used as a generic term for a number plucked chordophones, including ruan, therefore does not necessarily mean the same as the modern usage of pipa which refers only to the pear-shaped instrument.

According to the Pipa Annals《琵琶赋》by Fu Xuan [傅玄] of the Western Jin Dynasty, the pipa was designed after revision of other Chinese plucked string instruments of the day such as the Chinese zither, zheng [筝] and zhu [筑], or konghou [箜篌], the Chinese harp. However, it is believed that ruan may have been descended from an instrument called xiantao [弦鼗] which was constructed by labourers on the Great Wall of China during the late Qin Dynasty [hence the name Qin pipa] using strings stretched over a pellet drum.

Ruan Tunings
Names in Chinese Eng. Trns. Tunings
Gaoyinruan 高音阮 Soprano G3 / D4 / G4 / D5
Xiaoruan 小阮 Alto D3 / A3 / D4 / A4
Zhongruan 中阮 Tenor G2 / D3 / G3 / D4
Daruan 大阮 Bass D2 / A2 / D3 / A3
Diyinruan 低音阮 Contrabass G1 / D2 / G2 / D3

Construction: The modern ruan has 24 frets with 12 semitones on each string, which has greatly expanded its range from a previous 13 frets. The frets are commonly made of ivory or in recent times of metal mounted on wood.

Citations: Bibliography: Myers, John 1992. The way of the pipa: structure and imagery in Chinese lute music. Kent State University Press. pp. 5–7. ISBN 9780873384551. Thrasher, Alan R. 2002. Chinese Musical Instrument, p. 40. Oxford University Press Inc. New York. ISBN 0-19-590777-9. October 18, 2009. Shen, Sin-Yan 1991. Chinese Music and Orchestration: A Primer on Principles and Practice, p. 109. Chinese Music Society of North America, Woodridge. October 19, 2009 ;

Historic References:《太平御覽》 Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era. Original text: 漢遣烏孫公主,念其行道思慕,使工知音者,戰琴箏築箜篌之屬,作馬上之樂。 Translation: “The Han Emperor sent the Wusun princess, and being mindful of her thoughts and longings on her journey, instructed expert music craftsmen to make an instrument, based on the zheng, zhu, and konghou, which is tailored for playing on horseback.” (Note that there are variations of this passage from other sources, and Konghou is not listed in the other sources.《琵琶錄》 Records of Pipa by Duan Anjie [段安節] citing Du Zhi of Jin Dynasty. Original text: 樂錄雲,琵琶本出於弦鼗。而杜摯以為秦之末世,苦於長城之役。百姓弦鼗而鼓之 Translation: According to Yuelu, pipa originated from xiantao. Du Zhi thought that towards the end of Qin Dynasty, people who suffered as forced labourers on the Great Wall, played it using strings on a drum with handle. Note: that for the word xiantao, xian means string, tao means pellet drum, one common form of this drum is a flat round drum with a handle, a form that has some resemblance to Ruan. Shen, Sin-Yan 1991. Chinese Music and Orchestration: A Primer on Principles and Practice, p. 102. Chinese Music Society of North America, Woodridge. October 19, 2009. 杜佑 《通典》 Tongdian by Du You. Original text: 阮咸,亦秦琵琶也,而項長過於今制,列十有三柱。武太后時,蜀人蒯朗於古墓中得之,晉竹林七賢圖阮咸所彈與此類同,因謂之阮咸。 Translation: Ruan Xian, also called Qin pipa, although its neck was longer than today’s instrument. It has 13 frets. During Empress Wu period, Kuailang from Sichuan found one in an ancient tomb. Ruan Xian of The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove from the Jin Dynasty was pictured playing this same kind of instrument, it was therefore named after Ruan Xian ;

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