Hornbostel-Sachs System

Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie [in Eng; Journal of Ethnology] in 1914. An English translation was published in the Galpin Society Journal in 1961. It is the most widely used system for classifying musical instruments by ethnomusicologists and organologists; people who study musical instruments. The system was updated in 2011 as part of the work of the Musical Instrument Museums Online [MIMO] Project.

Hornbostel-Sachs System
Number Categories Instruments
Idiophones
Lithophones Dan Na /
Metallophones
Lamellaphones
Guimbards
Jaw-Harps Morsing /
Concussion
>> Board
>> Plaque
>> Gongs Babendil /
>> Pitched Jal Tarang /
>> Tube
>> Friction Musical Saw / Singing Bowl / Glass Harp
>> Lithopones Dan Da /
>> Xylophones Glockenspiel / Balofon / Patalla
Aerophones
 Flutes
>> Duct / Fipple Pincullo / Tarka / Suling
>> Open-Ended Ney / Kaval / Quray
>> Notched Queña /
>> Nose Ohe Hano Ihu /
>> Transverse Bansuri / Dizi / Daegeum / Pfuña
>> Panflutes Sikus / Antara / Toyos / Paixiao
>> Vessel Flutes Juaco / Ocarina / Xun
Reeds
>> Single
>> Double
>>> Bagpipes
>>> Shawms Bombard / Zurna /
>> Free
>>> Gourd Sheng / Sho / Mbuat / Naw
>>> Accordion
>>>> Diatonic
>>>> Chromatic
Chordophones
>> Bowed
>>> Fretted Dilruba / Esraj /
>>> Fretless
>> Dulcimers
>> Harps
>> Harp-Lutes Gravikord / Kora /
>> Lutes
>> Zithers
>>> Board
>>> Box Autoharp / Gusli / Taishogoto /
>>> Long Guzheng / Koto / Dran Tranh /
>>> Tube Valiha /
>>> Raft Yomkwo /
Membranophones
>> Drums
>>> Barrel Mrdingam / Madal / Khol
>>> Cylindrical
>>> Goblet Dumbek /
>>> Frame Doira / Daff / Mazhar /
 >>> Tension

 

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