The Vadya [In Hindi वाद्य IAST: Vādya] also called Vadyaka or Atodya, is one of the three components of sangita [musical performance arts. Vadya refers to “instrumental music” in the Indian traditions.

The other two components of sangita are Gita vocal music, song and nrtya dance, movement. In the general sense, Vadya means an instrument and the characteristic music they produce, sound or play out.

The term Vadya in the sense of “music, sounded, played, uttered” appears in the Vedic literature such as in the Aitareya Brahmana, and in early post-Vedic era Sanskrit texts such as the Natya Shastra, Panchatantra, Malvikagnimitra and Kathasaritsagara.

These texts call the musician or the performer on the musical instrument as Vadyadhara. A stringed instrument is described with proportional lengths in Jaiminiya Brahmana and Aitareya Aranyaka, these are compared to poetical meters

The Sanskrit literature such as Natya Shastra describes four types of Vadya:

Vadya Classification System
In Hindi Name Instrument Type
टाटा वदया Tata Stringed Chordophones
सुषिर वाद Susirā Hollow Aerophones
घाना वदया Ghana Solid Idiophones
अवदानदा वदया Avanaddha Covered Membranophones


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