Type: Frame Drum > Membranophone.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.311
Region: South Asia.
Description: Parai [in Tamil: பறை] or Thappu [in Tamil: தப்பு] it is one of the oldest drums still used in India. Especially in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Also in the northern and eastern most regions of Sri-Lanka. The Parai is one of the oldest drums used in India. Especially so in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu and also in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka. It is considered as one of the symbols of Tamil culture. There are a total of 28 varieties of Parai.
History: Originally this instrument was used as a communication mechanism to convey messages to people and alert against danger. The word Thappu came into practice predominantly during Nayakar’s rule in Tamil Nadu. Kurunthokai mentions that Parai was used as an auspicious instrument in weddings.
Varieties: A type of parai called Ari parai was used in harvest time to make the birds fly off from the fields. Another type of parai called Perum parai is found only in the Kongu Nadu region of Tamil Nadu. The parai that is played while dancing is called parai aattam [in Tamil: பறையாட்டம்] Parai Dance and is also referred to as Adavu [in Tamil: அடவு]. The parai aattam is a folk art in Tamil Nadu.
Saaparai or Sakaatuparai
Usage: The parai that is played while dancing is called parai aattam Tamil: பறையாட்டம் [Parai Dance] and is also referred to as Adavu Tamil: அடவு. The parai aattam is a folk art in Tamil Nadu. It was also used to alert the people in flood time.
Construction: It consists of a circular wooden frame with one end closed with cow skin membrane and the other end open. Thappu is played with two sticks, one being larger and thinner than the other. It is performed in dances, funerals, temple festivals and sport events. Thappu drum or Parai drum is also played to invoke the deities at Madras temples.
Citations: News articles: Finding Parai aattam ~ A better place, article by Janani Sampath – The New Indian Express, originally published 21st, January 2013 ; Music of the People ~ article by Akila Kannadasan – The Hindu ; Video documentary – This Is A Music: Reclaiming an Untouchable Drum, Producer: Zoe Sherinian Syracuse University ; Youtube Videos ; Parai Lesson Part I Introuction ; Part II Basic Rhythms ; by Sakthi Nimirvu Kalaiyagam ;