Membranophones

A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Most membranophones are drums. Hornbostel-Sachs divides drums into three main types: struck drums, where the skin is hit with a stick, the hand, or something else; string drums, where a knotted string attached to the drum’s skin is pulled, passing its vibrations onto the skin; and friction drums, where some sort of rubbing motion causes the skin to vibrate. A common type of friction drum has a stick passing through a hole in the skin which is pulled back and forth.

In addition to drums, there is another kind of membranophone, called the singing membranophone; the best known type is the kazoo. These instruments modify a sound produced by something else, commonly the human voice, by having a skin vibrate with it.

21: by hitting the drum-skin with a hand or object (most common form, including the timpani and snare drum)

22: by pulling a knotted string attached to the drum-skin – common in Indian drums, and can be considered an example of a chordophone as well.

23: by rubbing the drum-skin with a hand or object – common in Irish traditional music, an example is the bodhran.

24: by modifying sounds through a vibrating membrane (unusual form, including the kazoo

a] struck drums.

b] skin is struck with ones hands, a stick / beater or something else.

c] string drums, where a knotted string attached to the drum’s skin is pulled, passing its vibrations onto the skin; and friction drums, where some sort of rubbing motion causes the skin to vibrate (a common type has a stick passing through a hole in the skin which is pulled back and forth).

21: By hitting the drums-kin with a hand or object [most common form, including the timpani and snare drum].

22: By pulling a knotted string attached to the drum-skin [common in Indian drums, and can be considered an example of a chordophone as well].

23: By rubbing the drum-skin with a hand or object [common in Irish traditional music, an example is the bodhran].

24: By modifying sounds through a vibrating membrane [unusual form, including the kazoo].

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