Name: Jal Tarang.
Type: Struck > Concussion > Idiophone.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 111.11
Region: South Asia.
Description: The jal tarang [In Hindi: जल तरंग, in Urdu: جل ترنگ, in Kannada: ಜಲತರಂಗ, in Tamil: ஜலதரங்கம்] is a melodically tuned percussion instrument that is played in India. The tuning can be any given scale [raaga] as selected by the performer.
The Jal Tarang consists of a set of ceramic or metal bowls tuned with water. The bowls are played by striking the edge with beaters, one in each hand.
History: The earliest mention of the jal tarang is found in book ‘Vātsyāyana’s Kamasutra’ as playing on musical glasses filled with water. It is one of the 64 Arts and Science to be studied by a maiden.
The Jal-tarang also finds its self mentioned in medieval Sangeet Parijaat text, categories this instrument under Ghan-Vadya. As a category of idiophone instruments whose sound is produced by striking a surface, this category is also called concussion idiophones. 22 or more cups complete the formation of the musical instrument, Jal-Tarang. In medieval times the Jal-tarang was also called jal-yantra.
Citations: Lalmani Misra  ; Bharatiya Sangeet Vadya ; ISBN 81-263-0727-7