Name: Lyra Politica.
Type: Bowed Lute > Chordophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.321.71
Region: Greece, Turkey.
Description: The πολίτικη λύρα [Lyra politic] or lira is a direct descant of the byzantine Lyra. An instrument that was prevalent through out the Byzantine Empire. Are shaped instruments were the most popular form of instruments during this time. Remains of two actual examples of Byzantine lyras from the Middle ages have been found in excavations at Novgorod; one dated to 1190 AD.
The first known depiction of the instrument is on a Byzantine ivory casket [900–1100 AD], preserved in the Bargello in Florence [Museo Nazionale, Florence, Coll. Carrand, No.26].
In Use today: Versions of the Byzantine lyra are still played throughout the former lands of the Byzantine Empire: Greece [Politiki lyra, lit. “lyra of the City” i.e. Constantinople], Crete [Cretan lyra], Albania, Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, Croatia (Dalmatian Lijerica], Italy [Calabrian lira] and Turkey. Examples are the Politiki lyra (i.e. lyra of the Polis, or City, referring to Constantinople) (Greek: πολίτικη λύρα) also known as the Classical Kemenche (Turkish: Klasik kemençe or Armudî kemençe) from Constantinople, used in today’s Turkey and Greece.
The Cretan lyra (Greek: κρητική λύρα) and the one used in the Greek islands of the Dodecanese, the gadulka (Bulgarian: Гъдулка) in Bulgaria, the gusle in Serbia and Montenegro, the Calabrian lira (Italian: lira Calabrese) in Italy, and the Pontic lyra (Greek: ποντιακή λύρα; Turkish: Karadeniz kemençe) in the Pontic Greek communities, that existed (or still exist) around the shores of the Black Sea. The gudok, a historical Russian instrument that survived until the 19th century, is also a variant of the Byzantine lyra.
Terminology: From the organological point of view, the Byzantine lyra would be classified under the category of bowed lutes in the chordophone family. However, the designation lyra [in Greek: λύρα ~ lūrā, English: lyre) constitute of a terminological survival relating to the performing method of an ancient Greek instrument.
The use of the term lyra for a bowed instrument was first recorded in the 9th century, probably as an application of the term lyre of the stringed musical instrument of classical antiquity to the new bowed string instrument.
The Byzantine lyra is sometimes informally called a medieval fiddle, or a pear-shaped rebec, or a kamence, terms that may be used today to refer to a general category of similar stringed instruments played with a horsehair bow.
A D G Cretan Lyra
A A E Thrace, Karpathos & Dodecanese.
E G E Drama.
A D A Classical Kamence
Citations: Arkenberg, Rebecca [October 2002], Renaissance Violins, Metropolitan Museum of Art, retrieved 2006-09-22 Baines, Anthony [November 1992], The Oxford Companion to Musical Instruments, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-311334-1 Butler, Paul [October 2003], The rebec project, Personal website, retrieved 2009-03-10 Encyclopaedia Britannica , lira, Encyclopedia Britannica Online, retrieved 2009-02-20 Kartomi, Margaret J. (1990), On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-42548-7 Grillet, Laurent (1901), Les ancetres du violon v.1, Paris