Name: Panchamukha Vadyam.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Pot.
Region: South Asia.
Description: The Panchamukha Vadyam [Malayalam: പഞ്ചമുഖ വാദ്യം, Telugu: పంచముఖ వాద్యం, Tamil: பஞ்சமுக வாத்தியம்] is a drum from India. It is a metal drum with five faces [mukha], named after the faces of Siva: Sadyojatam, Isanam, Tatpurusham, Aghoram and Vamadevam. This drum is used in temple music.
Construction: The main body of the drum is constructed from bronze. From the top of the body there are five hollow cylinders attached. Each of the individual cylinders has a membrane or skin tied around it. The drum heads are approximately on the same level. In some specimens the central head is at slightly higher level than the peripheral heads.
Citations: Deepti Omchery Bhalla. Vanishing Temple Arts : Temples of Kerala and Kanyaakumaari District. Publisher Shubhi Pub ;