Name: Naqareh.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Kettle.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#:
Country: Many.
Region: Many, Caucasus, Central Asia & South Asia.

Description: The naqareh has its origins in the Middle East, although it is played in Iran, Azerbaijan where it is called. Ghosha-Naqara ghosha meaning “pair” and in India. The instrument was also adopted in Europe following the Crusades, and known as the naccaire or naker.

Etymology: The term naqqāra [نقاره] also نقارات naqqarat, naqqarah, naqqåre, nakkare, nagora comes from the Arabic verb naqr- that means “to strike, beat”.

Varieties: In Georgia Diplipito is a widespread percussion instrument all over Georgia. It comprises two small cone-shaped clay pots of the same height, but different width, which are covered with leather. One of the clay pots is smaller than the other. A cord ties the two jars together. The height of the pots is 200-250 mm, and their diameters are 90mm and 170mm.

In Georgia the diplipito is played with two small sticks called “goat legs.” The instrument is used to provide rhythms for vocal music and dance music. It is often combined with instruments such as duduki, buzika panduri, and salamuri. The diplipito is generally played by males, and plays an important role in Georgian folk ensembles.

In Turkey the Naqareh is pronounced nakkare and refers to small kettle drums beaten with the hands or two sticks. Kös or giant kettledrums played on horseback, are a separate instrument. These drums and the davul or cylindrical drum were used in Ottoman mehter music.

In Uzbekistan the kettledrum is called naqara or nagora. Dulnaqara: a large kettledrum that gives a low and loud sound [i.e. “tum”]. Reznaqara is a small kettledrum that gives a high and loud sound [i.e. “tak”]. Koshnaqara is a small-paired kettledrum, a pair of clay pots with goatskin tops.

Citations: Bibliography: James Blades, Percussion Instruments and Their History – Bold Strummer 1992. pp. 223. ISBN 978-0-933224-61-2 ; Stanley Sadie; Alison Latham 1988 ; The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. Macmillan. pp. 514. ISBN 978-0-333-43236-5 ; Edmund Addison Bowles 2002 ; The Timpani: A History in Pictures and Documents. Pendragon Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-945193-85-2 ;

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