Type: Membranophones > Drums > Barrel.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.22
Country: Punjab & most of, India.
Region: South Asia.
Description: The Dhol [in Hindi: ढोल, in Punjabi: ਢੋਲ, in Urdu: ڈھول, in Assamese: ঢোল, in Gujarati: ઢોલ, in Marathi: ढोल, in Bengali: ঢোল, in Kannada: ಡೊಳ್ಳು] can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drums. This type of double-headed drum is widely used although with regional variations, throughout the Indian Sub-continent.
The range of distribution of the Dhol in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan primarily includes northern areas such as the Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Kashmir, Sindh, Assam Valley, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Konkan, Goa, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The range stretches westward as far as eastern Afghanistan. A related instrument is the dholak or dholki.
Construction: The dhol is a double-sided barrel drum played mostly as an accompanying instrument in regional music forms. In qawwali music, the term dhol is used to describe a similar, but smaller drum used with the smaller tabla, as a replacement for the left hand tabla drum. The typical sizes of the drum vary slightly from region to region. In Punjab, the dhol remains large and bulky to produce the preferred loud bass. In other regions, dhols can be found in varying shapes and sizes and made with different woods and materials [fibre glass, steel, plastic].
The drum consists of a wooden barrel with animal hide or synthetic skin stretched over both sides, covering each side completely. These skins can be stretched or loosened with a tightening mechanism made up of either interwoven ropes, or nuts and bolts. Tightening or loosening the skins subtly alters the pitch of the drum sound. The stretched skin on one of the ends is thicker and produces a deep, low frequency higher bass sound and the other thinner one produces a higher frequency sound. Dhols with synthetic, or plastic, treble skins are common.
Citations: Bibliography: Schreffler, Gibb Stuart September 2010. “The Ḍhol, Presently”. Signs of Separation: Ḍhol in Punjabi Culture [PhD]. University of California, Santa Barbara. pp. 452–454 ; Goa, Daman and Diu [India]. Gazetteer Dept 1979 ; Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu: district gazetteer, Volume 1. Gazetteer Dept., Govt. of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu. p. 263 ; Śiroḍakara, Mandal, Pra. Pā, H. K 1993 ; People of India. Volume XXI: Goa. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India ; Schreffler, Karnataka’s Rich Heritage – Temple Sculptures & Dancing Apsaras: An Amalgam of Hindu Mythology, Natyasastra and Silpasastra. Notion Press. ISBN 9781947137363 ; Dhol King Of The Punjabi Instruments – Archived September 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ; Goa, Daman and Diu, India – Gazetteer Dept 1979; Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu: district gazetteer, Volume 1. Gazetteer Dept., Govt. of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu. p. 263. Śiroḍakara, Mandal, Pra. Pā, H. K 1993. People of India: Goa. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India. p. 45.263. ISBN “Janapadaloka -World of Folk art”. Websites: Signs of Separation. 2010 ; “Music to the years: Musical instruments from the Indus Valley Civilization”. hindustantimes. 2016-08-14. Retrieved 2018-12-22, Chugh, Lalit [2017-05-23] ;