Idiophones

An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates the sound primarily by the instrument as a whole. Vibrating with out the use of strings or membranes. The early classification of Victor-Charles Mahillon called this group of instruments autophones. Most percussion instruments that are not drums are idiophones. Hornbostel-Sachs classifies idiophones into four main sub-categories.

The first division is the struck idiophones (sometimes called concussion idiophones). This includes most of the non-drum percussion instruments familiar in the West. They include all idiophones made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand like the wood block, singing bowl, steel tongue drum, triangle or marimba or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion (like maracas or flexatone). Various types of bells fall into both categories.

111. Directly
111.1. Concussion
111.2. Percussion
112. Indirectly
112.1. Shaken/rattle
112.2. Scraped/rasp

12. Plucked (Mbira)
121. Frame
121.1. Clack
121.2. Guimbarde (Jaw-Harps)

122.
122.1 Comb
122.2. Cut out

13. Friction
131. Stick Nail violin
132. Plaque Musical saw Daxophone
133. Vessel Glass harmonica
14. Blown
141. Stick
142. Plaque