Name: Bajo Sexto.
Type: Chordophones > Composite > Lutes > Guitarillos > Bajo.
Tuning: E / A / D / G / C / F
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Region: Latin America.
Description: Bajo sexto [Bajo = Bass = Sexto meaning “sixth” in reference to its 6 courses 12 strings. Each course is pared or doubled. A closely related instrument is the bajo quinto [Spanish: “fifth bass”] which has 10 strings in 5 double courses. The origins of this instrument are some what unclear. As most of the history is oral transmitted by those who play and build the instruments.
History: In the 17th and 18th centuries, Mexican artisans built several types of instruments with double strings in three, four, fifths, sixth, seventh and eight courses, these lutes are directly influenced by their Spanish ancestors.
Descendants of these instruments are bandolon, guitarra séptima, quinta huapanguera, jarana jarocha, concheros string instruments, and guitarra chamula, among others. The manufacture of bajo quinto and sexto reached a peak in quality and popularity in the 19th century in central and southern Mexico, in the states of Guerrero, Michoacán, Morelos, Puebla, Oaxaca and Tlaxcala.
Playing Technique: A plectrum is used often as the strings are quite thick on the bajo-sexto.
Tuning: The use of the E / A / D / G / C / F tuning for this particular instrument allows for switching between notes between an octave apart when playing in certain keys. In guitar parlance this tuning is referred to as “All Fourths” as the intervals of this tuning are all in fourths.
Construction: The bajo-sexto is a member of the guitar family. Physically this instrument appears to be quite similar to the 12-string guitar. There are some slight differences. The Body is usually a bit deeper. The neck is shorter, joining the body at the 12th fret. Modern 12-string guitars usually join at the 14th fret; being a bass instrument the strings are thicker.
Citations: Bibliography: Avetardo, J. T. ed. Puro Conjunto: An Album in words and Pictures; Center for Mexican American Studies, The University of Texas; Austin, Texas: 2001. 470p. ISBN 0-292-78174-1 Bajos de espiga. Diccionario de la Música Española e Hispanoamericana. Sociedad General de Autores y Editores. Madrid  ; ISBN 978-84-8048-303-2 Hernandez, Ramon; An Informal History of the Bajo Sexto; in Aventardo, Ch. 12, pp. 127–130. The Texas-Mexican Conjunto Bajo sexto / quinto ;