Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Open-Ended.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Region: Eastern Europe.
Description: The kalyuka [or Kolyuka in Russian: Калюка, Колюка] is a Russian and Ukrainian overtone flute, lacking playing holes. In Eastern traditions, Kalyuka were played on summer evenings after the hay was harvested from suitable crops with a scythe.
The kalyuka player was often accompanied by percussionists who kept pace with the melody. The existence of the tradition was uncovered in 1980 by students of the Moscow and St. Petersburg Conservatories.
Playing Technique: The upper end of the Kalyuka is open, and although it has a built-in fipple to produce sound, a player should also partly close the opening of the tube with the tongue. The lower end of the tube is also open and occasionally there is a small side hole near the end. The side hole and/or end are opened and closed while playing to produce different notes [like the Slovak Koncovka]. Higher tones are reached through over blowing.
Construction: Traditionally, Kalyukas were made from hollow plant stems, such as Motherwort, or Angelica. Modern versions of the instrument are usually made from PVC [Poly Vinyl Chloride] an inexpensive and durable substitute.
Citations: Bibliography ; Иванов А.Н. Волшебная флота южнорусского фольклора. Сохранирование и возведение фольклорных традиций. 2-е издание. Москва, 1993 ; Банин А.А. Русская инструментальная музыка фольклорной традиции. Москва, 1997. с.85 ; Ivanov A.N. The magical flute of South Russian folklore. Preservation and erection of folklore traditions. 2nd edition. Moscow, 1993; Banin A.A. Russian instrumental music of folk tradition. Moscow, 1997. p.85 ;