Type: Fipple Flutes > Aerophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.221.12
Country: Basque region, France.
Description: The xirula [Basque pronunciation: ʃiˈɾula ; spelled chiroula in French, also pronounced txirula, xülüla in Zuberoan Basque; Gascon: flabuta; French: galoubet] is a small three holed woodwind instrument or flute usually made of wood akin to the Basque txistu or three-hole pipe, but more high pitched and strident, tuned to D/G and an octave higher than the silbote.
The sound that flows from the flute has often been perceived as a metaphor for the tweet cadences of bird songs. Some scholars point out that flutes found in the Caverns of Isturitz and Oxozelaia going back to a period spanning 35,000 to 10,000 years ago bear witness to the early presence of the instrument’s forerunner in the region, while this view has been disputed.
Citations: Txistu”, Vitrifolk. Archived from the original on 2008-01-29. Site in French “Txori erresiñulak”. Berria. Site in Basque ; Txistular magazine – The whistle on the Internet, 178. April-May-June, 1999. Euskalkultura.com – Diaspora & Basque Culture / Karlos Sanchez reconstructs the history of Txistularis in hi book Txuntxuneroak