Name: Satdiev.
Type: Stick Zither > Chordophone.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 314.122.4
Country: Kampuchea.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The Satdiev is a single stringed stick zither of the Khmer people of Kampuchea. It consists of a hardwood body, a single string attached to a friction tuning peg and a resonator made from a gourd cut to fit to the stick during assembly. The satdiev is played by ensembles who are affiliated with the cults of deities and for weddings.

Playing Techniques: This instrument is played by the use harmonics and false harmonics. Vibrato is achieved by slightly lifting the gourd from the chest to increase the sound or to muffle it, when the string is plucked. False harmonics and harmonics are applied in the playing of this instrument. The Satdiev like its Thai counter part is a very quiet musical instrument.

Citations: Bibliography: New Grove Dictionary of Music by Stanley Sadie, Volume 3, P to Z page 303.


Name: Qanbus.
Type: Lute > Chordophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Country: Yemen, Malaysia.
Region: Middle East, Africa & South East Asia.

Description: A qanbūs or gambus [in Arabic: قنبوس‎] is a short-necked lute that originated in Yemen and spread throughout the Arabian peninsula. Sachs considered that it derived its name from the Turkic khomuz, but it is more comparable to the oud.

Distribution: The qanbūs spread through out the Middle East, on route to South East Asia by trade routes on the Indian Ocean. Southeast Asia especially Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei where it is called the gambus, it sparked a whole musical genre of its own.

Today it is played in Johor, South Malaysia, in the traditional dance Zapin and other genres, such as the Malay ghazal and an ensemble known as kumpulan gambus “gambus group”. Kumpulan gambus can also be found active in Sabah, especially in the Bongawan district of East Malaysian Borneo. In the Comoros it is known as gabusi and in Zanzibar as gabbus.



Name: Ütőgardon.
Type: Bowed > Chordophone.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322
Tuning: Usually in D / d [an octave apart].
Country: Transylvania, Romania & Hungary.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The ütőgardon or gardon, is a folk musical instrument played primarily in Transylvania. It is similar in appearance to a cello, but it is played percussively like a drum. Instead of being played with a bow, its strings are plucked and beaten with a stick.

The gardon was primarily played by the Székelys, a Hungarian ethnic group in Transylvania, and the Csángós of the Gyimes region. It can have three or four strings. Playing with a stick instead of a bow provides a droning accompaniment. Musically there are some similarities between the violin-gardon ensembles of Hungarians and some Roma in Transylvania and the zurna-davul widespread throughout the Balkans, Anatolia, and the Near East. The gardon is regularly, though not exclusively, played by a woman, the wife of the violinist.

Citations: Szendrei, Janka 2009 “Hungary”. Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 Sep 2014. Kurti, Laszlo. “The Way of the Taltos: A Critical Reassessment of a Religious-Magical Specialist” (PDF). Wilkinson, Iren Kertész 2009. “‘Gypsy’ [Roma-Sinti-Traveller] music”. Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 Sep 2014.

Dan Tinh

Name: Dàn Tinh.
Type: Lute > Chordophone.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Country: Vietnam.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The đàn tính or tính tẩu (gourd lute), is a stringed musical instrument played by the Tay people of Lạng Sơn Province in Vietnam. Although “tinh tau” originated as a Tay word, both names are used in Vietnamese. It is used by shamans in séances in the hope that it will be animated by spirits.

The instrument has two strings in two courses. The strings are made of silk, nylon or fishing wire.

Citations: Bibliography: Stanley Sadie – New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments ; Maurice Abadie, Walter E. J. Tips – Minorities of the Sino-Vietnamese borderland, 2001. “In reality the Tho [Tay] produce a distinct stringed musical instrument called a tinh tau in Tay and dan tinh in Vietnamese of a type also used by the Thai Khao. the Tay version having one string and the Tai Khao version two strings.” ; Websites:


Name: Bandolon.
Type: Lute > Chordophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Country: Mexico
Region: Central America.

Description: A Bandolón is a musical instrument from Mexico. It is a guitar sized instrument, resembling a flat-back mandolin with 18 strings, arranged in 6 courses, three strings per course, and played with a pick.

It is associated with the típica orquestra [typical orchestra] in Mexico, especially the 1884 Orquestra Típica Mexicana [Mexican Typical Orchestra] first organized by Carlo Curti. Pictures such as the 1901 Mexican Typical Orchestra at the Pan American Exposition show another variation; an instrument with 12 strings [one less string per course].

Citations: “DEFINICIÓN DE BANDOLÓN, qué significa bandolón”. Retrieved September 16, 2015. Alfabético temática Invicta. p. 863. El Mundo ilustrado, Volume 8, Part 1. June 23, 1901. p. 269. de Olavarría y Ferrari, Enrique 1895. Reseña histórica del teatro en México, Volumes 3-4. La Europea. pp. 408–409.

Stroh Violin

Name: Stroh Violin.
Type: Bowed > Chordophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.7
Tuning: G / D / A / E
Inventor: John Matthias Augustus Stroh, 1899.
Country: Many, England.
Region: Continental Europe.

Description: The Stroh violin or Stroviol is a type of stringed musical instrument that is mechanically amplified by a metal resonator and horn attached to its body. The name Stroviol refers to a violin, but other instruments have been modified with the amplification device, including the viola, cello, double bass, ukulele, mandolin, and guitar. John Matthias Augustus Stroh, an electrical engineer in London, invented the instrument in 1899.

Invention: On 4 May 1899, Stroh applied for a UK patent, GB9418 titled Improvements in Violins and other Stringed Instruments which was accepted on 24 March 1900. This described the use of a flat metal [other materials are also mentioned] diaphragm in the voice-box [reproducer] of a violin to mechanically amplify the sound. Then on 16 February 1901 he applied for a second UK patent, GB3393 titled Improvements in the diaphragms of Phonographs, Musical Instruments, and analogous Sound-producing, Recording and Transmitting Contrivances.

Which was accepted on 14 December 1901. This effectively extended the first concept to now use a conical resonator with corrugations at its edge, allowing a more ‘rigid’ diaphragm. His failure to register his inventions in the USA allowed John Dopyera and Geo Beauchamp to subsequently obtain US patents for the tricone and single cone designs used in National brand instruments.

Usage: In 1911 the stroh violin was an expensive instrument. It was offered by the London dealers Barnes & Mullins for nine guineas [£9.45, then equal to $37.80] or twelve guineas (£12.60 / $50.40) at a time when a reasonable factory violin could be had for two guineas. It was listed as being especially suitable for use in small theatres and music-halls.[citation needed] In 1920s Buenos Aires, Julio de Caro, a renowned Tango orchestra director and violinist, used the Stroh violin in his live performances, and was called violín-corneta [cornet violin] by the locals.

Varieties: Luthiers created similar designs, such as Howson, which made brass-horned phono instruments including single-stringed phono fiddles and four-stringed phono ukuleles. The violinophone was made in Prague in the early 20th century. This instrument has a diaphragm mounted vertically in a violin body under the bridge. The sound is carried through a tube to the horn which protrudes from the violin to a long horn which wraps around the shoulder.

A violin that amplifies its sound through a metal resonator and metal horns rather than a wooden sound box as on a standard violin. Willy Tiebel in Markneukirken Germany made Stroh violin copies in the 1920s. The Stroh violin is closely related to other horned violins using a mica sheet-resonating diaphragm, known as phonofiddles. In the present day, many types of horn-violin exist, especially in the Balkans.

Citations: “Stroh Violin”. History Wired. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2017 ; Real, Sean [19 December 2017]. “The Stroh Violin”. 99% Invisible. Retrieved 12 January 2018. Picture of the duo on their homepage with Heather Trost holding a Stroh violin. Archived September 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine [archive website].


Name: Kilaut.
Type: Frame Drum > Membranophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.311
Country: Canada, Alaska United States & Greenland.
Region: Arctic circle.

Description: The kilaut [alternate spellings: Kilaun, Qilain, Qilaun, Keylowtik, Qilaut or in Greenlandic: Qillat or Qidat] it is a single-headed frame drum played by the Yupic peoples in Nunavut, North West Territories tchauyuk or cauyuk and the neighbouring Inapiaq people in Alaska United States and in Greenland. This drum is associated with secular performances namely solo performances, long poems, dances, gatherings or satirical drum duals between two adversaries.

Construction: The basic components of the drum are formed by the by tying the membrane with sinew or chord. The sinew or chord is lashed into the grooves carved into the frame. The difference in the appearance and sound of the drum is regional. The physical characteristics determine the range of playing techniques.

For example the alaskan Yupic drums have have a narrow frame of drum is 2.5 cm in with. Allowing for a greater range of playing techniques.  In Greenland the the qilat may range up to 90 cm in diameter. In eastern Greenland the stomach of a bear, shark, seal, walrus skin are used. The frames of Alaskan drums are considerably narrow in diameter 37.5 cm. are covered whale peritoneum or stomach lining or heavy plastic. In eastern Greenland the stomach of a bear, shark skin or or seal skin, stomach and or intestines.

In Hudson Bay Nunavut, Canada a larger heavier drum is played by a solo drum-dancer holds the instrument in one hand. Rotates the drum on its axis. In Central Canada, Caribou skin or sail-cloth recently plastics have been introduced. In eastern Greenland the stomach of a bear, shark, seal, walrus skin are used.

Citations: Bibliography: Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary of Music P. 428, 429 ; R. Gessein and P. E. Victor; Le tambour chi les Ammassalimiut [in English: The drum of the Inuit] ; Websites ; / Inuit drum [article] ;


Name: Pincullo.
Type: Fipple Flute > Aerophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Specimens: 1 in collection.
Country: Many.
Region: South Americas.

Description: The pincullo or pinkillu [in Quecha] is a short length flute having a closed fipple at the top of the instrument where it is played. Usually having 6 to 7 finger holes. This flute is played in Bolivia and Peru. Pincullo are played solo, or in ensemble often accompanied by percussion or stringed instruments or both depending on the region the pincullo is played.

Citations: Bibliography: Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary of Music ; Websites / Blogs / Egardo Civallero Bitacora de un Musico / Blog For Musicians [Pinkullo Potosino Article] ;

Gandigan A Kayo

Name: Gandingan a Kayo. Type: Wooden Xylophone > Idiophones. Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 111.22 Country: Philippines. Region: South East-Asia. Description: The gandingan a kayo [translated the name of the instrument means, “wooden gandingan,” or “gandingan made of wood”] is a Philippine xylophone and considered the wooden version of the real gandingan. This instrument is a relatively new instrument coming of age due to the increasing popularity of the “wooden kulintang ensemble”. Unlike the original gandingan, the gandingan a kayo cannot be used for long-distance communication. Citations: Mercurio, Philip Dominguez 2006 ~ Traditional Music of the Southern Philippines ; PnoyAndTheCity: A center for Kulintang – A home for Pasikings. Retrieved June 7, 2006.


Name: Kagurabue.
Type: Transverse > Flutes > Aerophones.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The kagurabue [神楽笛] or yamatobue [和笛] is a six or seven-hole transverse flute used to support Japanese kagura performance. Kagura flute is a pure Japanese instrument together with Wako [Wakon] in ancient times, it is used only in Suite of Kagura Song [Kagura Uta] in Gagaku.

Although the flute naming the name Kagura flute exists in various forms throughout the country, the Kagura flute to be used in Gagaku is distinctive and is different from the one used in rural festival music and the like.

Characteristics: The range is two octaves, but it is twice lower than the dragon whistle. In addition, even with the same fingering fingers, it is possible to make a sound different by one octave due to the difference in breath. The lower range is called “sum” [fukura] and the upper range is called “responsibility” [semi].

Construction: The total length is about 45 cm, the inside diameter is about 1, 8 cm, there are 6 finger holes.

Citations: Bibliography ; Malm, William P 1959 ; Japanese music and musical instruments [1st ed.]. p54. C.E. Tuttle Co, Tokyo ; Rutland ; Dr. David Petersen, March 2007 [google books] ; An Invitation to Kagura: Hidden Gem of the Traditional Japanese Performing Arts pp. 271 pp. [Kagurabue article] originally in Japanese translated by google translate.

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