Category Archives: References


Akhak Gwebeom

The Akhak kwebŏm or [in Hangul: 악학궤범 ; in Hanja: 樂學軌範] translates to as “musical cannons” it is the most comprehensive musical treatise on the subject of Korean music. It was compiled and published in the early Yi Dynasty during 1493 by a team headed by Song Hyŏn [1439–1504] and other editors, at the order of King Sŏngjong [ruled 1469–1494].

Consisting of nine chapters [kwŏn or chüan] in three fascicles, the treatise describes and classifies musical instruments [for aak, tangak and hyangak], musical theory, sacrificial and ritual music, costumes and ceremonial accessories for court musicians and dancers, and tangak and hyangak court dances [chŏngjae], including dancing and singing. It is an invaluable source not only for the study of Korean music theory and history, but also for the study of Korean dance, literature and language.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Chang, Sa-hun [1976]. Hanguk Eumaksa, The History of Korean Music. Seoul, South Korea: Eumsa © 1983 by the International Council for Traditional Music ;

Bayin [Eight Sound] System


The bayin or eight sound / fold system is organized by the materials the instruments are made of rather than how they are played.

Silk [in Mandarin Chinese: 絲 Pinyin sī] is a category assigned to the stringed instruments be they plucked [as in the pipa, lute or zheng, zither, bowed [as in the erhu], or struck [as in Yangqin].

Bamboo musical instruments are predominantly wind instruments, notably the membranous transverse flute [the dizi], hulusi [bamboo gourd, reed pipe], bawu [transverse or side blown reed pipe] ;

Gourd, this category includes the hulusi, a reed pipe with a gourd as its main body. Also includes the Sheng, Sho, U, Mbuat, Keluri, Sumpoton.

Bayin [Eight Tone] System
Materials Names [M. Ch.] Names [Pin.]
Bamboo zhú
Stone shí
Metal jīn
Gourd páo

Guitar Tunings / Alternate



Guitar Tunings / Alternate
Names Nomenclature Pitch Tunings
Standard Renterant Emin11th E A D G B E
Semitone Renterant E [flat] min 11th Eb Ab Dd Gb Bb Ee
Tone Down Renterant  D D G C F A D
  Renterant D# D# G# C# F# A# D#
  Renterant C# C# F# B E G# C#
  Renterant C C F Bb Eb G C
Lute Renterant   E A D F# B E
Lute No. 2 Renterant   E A D F# A E
  Renterant A Sus 4/7 E A D G A E
Lazy D Renterant   E A D G B D
All Fourths Renterant   F A D G C F
Augmented 4ths Renterant C F# C F# C F#
  Dropped C6th C A D G B E
  Open C6th C E G A C E
Major Thirds Open C C E G C E G
  Dropped C C G C F A D
  Modal  C C G C G B D
   Open C Maj 7 C G C G B E
Orkney Modal G Sus 4/4 C G C G C D
  Dropped C C G D G A D
  Open G / C Add4 C G D G B D
    C Sus 2 C G D G C D
  Dropped C C G D G B E
  Open  C C G D G C E
  Modal D Sus 4 D A D F A D
Double D
Dropped   D A D G B D
Dropped D Dropped  D D A D G B E
Dropped D Maj 7 D A D F# A C#
Dropped D 6/9 D A D F# B E
Open D Minor D A D F A D
Vestapol Open D Major D A D F# A D
Curtis Mayfield Open F# F# A# C# F# A# F#
Tarro Patch Open G D G D G B D
Dobro Open G G B D G B D
Slide Open A E A E A C# E
Alternate Open A E A C# A C# E 
  Open A Sus 4 D A D G B E



Indonesian Guitar Tunings
Names Nomenclature Tunings
Stem Las Bas F Maj 13#11 F / C / D / G / B / E
Kemayoran F / C / D / G / C / E
Stem Pal F / Bb / D / G / C / E
Stem Krembang Kacang F# / A / C# / F# / B / E
Los Quinn Tallu-Tallu G Major G / C / D / G / B / D
Karambagan Raised A Major G / A / D / G / B / E
E Minor E / B / D / G / B / E
Andu Andu Rudang A Sus 4/7 E / A / D / G / A / E
Rabana E Minor E / A / E / G / A / E

Citations: Discography: Liner Notes from the Music of Indonesia Series Vol. 20 Indonesian Guitars SFW40447 pp. 10-11 [adobe PDF file] ;