Category Archives: Dan

Dan

Tu

Name: Dan Tu.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.6
Country: Vietnam.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The đàn tứ [tứ meaning “four” in Vietnamese, referring to the instrument’s number of strings], also called đàn đoản, đoản meaning “short,” referring to the instrument’s neck. It is a traditional Vietnamese stringed musical instrument, a moon-shaped lute with a short neck, similar to the Chinese yueqin. It is little used today.

A different instrument with the same name, which is similar to the Chinese zhongruan, is used in Vietnam’s tradition of nhạc dân tộc cải biên. Towards the 1960s, Vietnamese musician improved đàn tứ’s ability to play Western-style music by creating a rectangular body with longer strings designed for Western Diatonic scale. It now becomes much more popular than the traditional version.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites:

Tinh

Name: Dan Tinh.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Dan.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.6
Tuning:
Country: Vietnam.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The dan tính or tính tau [gourd lute], is a stringed musical instrument played by the Tay people of Lạng Sơn Province in Vietnam. Although “tinh tau” originated as a Tay word, both names are used in Vietnamese. The dan tinh is used by shamans in séances in the hope that it will be animated by spirits.

The instrument has two individual nylon strings. They are strung over a bridge, two friction tuning pegs are installed at the left and right sides of the head stock. The body is often cut from a gourd where a sound table is affixed to the top of the gourd, completing the resonator. The strings used were originally of silk although nylon fishing line is often used.

Citations: Bibliography: Trȧn Quang Hai – Stanley Sadie – New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments Vol. 1 Book A to F, page 544 ; Maurice Abadie, Walter E. J. Tips – Minorities of the Sino-Vietnamese borderland, 2001. “In reality the Tho [Tay] produce a distinct stringed musical instrument called a tinh tau in Tay and dan tinh in Vietnamese of a type also used by the Thai Khao. the Tay version having one string and the Tai Khao version two strings.” ;

Nguyet

Name: Dan Nguyet.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.6
Country: Vietnam.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The đàn nguyệt [in Vietnamese đàn nguyệt [ɗǎn ŋwiə̂ˀt] is a literal translation to “moon lute” or its alternative names including nguyệt cầm, đàn kìm. It is a two-stringed Vietnamese traditional musical instrument. It is used in both folk and classical music, and remains popular throughout Vietnam.

Etymology: The instrument’s standard Vietnamese name, đàn nguyệt, literally means “moon string instrument” đàn is the generic term for “string instrument” and nguyệt means “moon”. Its alternate name, nguyệt cầm, also means “moon string instrument” cầm meaning “string instrument” in Sino-Vietnamese, coming from the Chinese word qín 琴.

Playing Technique: The Đàn nguyệt are strung and kept to a low tension. The instrument’s raised frets, allow for the bending tones which are so important to the proper interpretation of Vietnamese traditional music. The bending tones are produced by pressing the string toward the neck rather than bending to the side.

Note: There is no fixed tuning ascribed for the Dan Nguyet. However the instrument is tuned in fourths. Usually tuned to suite the singers voice.

Dan Nguyet Tunings
Names Tunings
G C
D G

Citations: Bibliography: Trȧn Quang Hai Stanley Sadie – New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments Vol. 1 Book A to F, Page 542 ; The Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music – Page 262 Terry E. Miller, Sean Williams 2008 This lute is the only stringed instrument used to accompany ca trù singing. The đàn nguyệt or the đàn kìm is a moon-shaped, long-necked lute with two silk strings ;

Day

Name: Dan Day.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.6
Tuning: G / C / F
Country: Vietnam.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The dan day is a Vietnamese plucked lute with three strings, a trapezoidal wooden body, and a very long wooden neck with ten raised frets. Players formerly used silk strings, but since the late 20th century have generally used nylon. It is used primarily in Northern Vietnam, and is one of the accompanying instruments used in the genre of ca trù.

Etymology: In the Vietnamese language, đàn is a classifier used primarily to refer to string instruments, and đáy means “bottom.” Thus, the instrument’s name translates literally as “bottom string instrument.” However, the instrument’s body has no back. According to this website, the instrument was originally called vô để cầm, literally “bottomless stringed instrument”.

Usage: In the late 20th century, a modernized version of the electric bass guitar in the shape of the đàn đáy was developed for use in the neo-traditional music composed and performed at the Hanoi Conservatory. Unlike the đàn đáy, this instrument has a solid wooden body and metal strings, and without raised frets.

Citations: Bibliography: The Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music – Page 262 Terry E. Miller, Sean Williams 2008 ; Websites:

Sen

Name: Dan Sen.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.312.6
Country: Vietnam.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The đàn sến is a Vietnamese plucked string instrument with two strings and a slender neck with raised frets. It is derived from the Chinese qinqin and is used primarily in the traditional music of southern Vietnam.

Citations: Bibliography: Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Vol. South East Asia P. 262 The đàn sến is the Vietnamese version of the Southern Chinese octagonal lute [qinqin] Websites: