Category Archives: Flutes

Flutes

Koncovka

Name: Koncovka.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Slovakia.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Descriptions: The Koncovka is a Slovak duct-blown overtone fipple flute without finger holes. Traditional koncovka melodies use the partial Lydian scale available on this instrument.

Playing Techniques: It is traditionally played by shepherds. The koncovka flute is played by closing and opening the bottom hole of the flute. By increasing the air speed, two different harmonic series of notes can be played with the end either open or closed.

Citations:

Klui

Name: Klui.
Type: Aerophones > Duct > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Specimen: 1 in collection.
Country: Thailand.
Region: South-East Asia.

Description: The khlui [in Thai: ขลุ่ย] is a vertical duct flute from Thailand. Originated before or during the Sukhothai period [1238-1583AD] along with many other Thai instruments. The history of this flute was officially recorded as a Thai instrument by king Trailokkanat [1431-1488], who sets the official model of the instruments. It is a duct-flute. it survives to the present day as the khlui phiang aw.

Types: With a long history, the instrument had been modified to be used in other occasions, making new types of Khlui that was invented. There are 3 main types of Khlui, although there are also many others. The 3 types of Khlui, that is still popular to the present day. These versions of the khlui are the khlui phiang aw, khlui phiang lib or the khlui u.

Construction: Generally made of bamboo, though instruments are also made from hardwood or plastic. After many generations of modifications.

Citations:

Khloy

Name: Khloy.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Cambodia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: A khloy [in Khmer: ខ្លុយ khloy] is a traditional bamboo flute from Cambodia and more specifically the Khmer people. The khloy and other similar bamboo flutes can be found throughout Asia, due to bamboo’s abundance in the region. The Cambodian khloy is often mistaken for its close relative of Thailand, the klui flute. Unlike the klui flute, the khloy is generally played solo in an informal setting. The khloy is mostly played using the pentatonic scale.

Construction: The khloy is a duct flute, about 38 cm or 15 inches in length and 2.5 cm or 1 inch in diameter, with 8 or 9 finger holes, and a duct end where the player blows into to produce a sound.

Citations:

Frula

Name: Frula.
Type: Aerophones > Duct > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Serbia.
Region: Balkans & South Eastern Europe.

Description: The frula pronounced [frǔla], Serbian Cyrillic: фрула, also known as svirala [свирала] or jedinka [in Croatian]. It is a musical instrument which resembles a medium sized flute, traditionally played in Serbia.

The frula is a traditional instrument of shepherds, who would play while tending their flocks. It is one of several aerophones used for leisure time, rituals, or accompanying the kolo [circle dance] along with long flutes [duduk, cevara], the double flute [dvojnice], and the bag-pipe [gajde].

Construction: It is typically made of wood, having a fipple or duct. The frula has six finger holes.

Citations: Bibliography: Rad kongresa. 1981. p. 334. Danica. Hrvatsko književno društvo sv. Ćirila i Metoda. 1951; Sviraljka s usnama »jedinka«. Dragoljub Zamurović; Ilja Slani; Madge Phillips-Tomašević 2002. Serbia: life and customs. ULUPUDS. p. 188; Christopher Deliso 2009. Culture and Customs of Serbia and Montenegro. Greenwood Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-313-34436-7 ;

Fujara

Name: Fujara.
Type: Aerophones > Flute > Duct > External.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Slovakia.
Region: Continental & East Europe.

Description: The fujara [in Slovakian [ˈfujara]) originated in central Slovakia as a large sophisticated folk shepherd’s overtone fipple flute of unique design. It is technically a contrabass in the tabor pipe class.

Features: Ranging from 160 mm to 200 cm long and in 1.7 metres in length. The fujara is tuned in the available keys A / G or F. It has three tone holes [also called finger holes] located on the lower part of the main body. The sound is produced by a fipple at the upper end of the main body of the fujara.

Citations: Bibliography; Eischek, Oskár 2006 Fujara : The Slovak Queen of European Flutes. Bratislava: Hudobné centrum. ISBN 978-80-88884-91-0 ; Garnett, Rod 2004. Flutes of Slovakia: fujara, koncovka, šesťdierková píšťalka and dvojačka ; Laramie, Wyoming University of Wyoming. pp. 8–10. OCLC 55993856 ; Rychlik, Bohuslav Bob; American Musical Instrument Society (May 27, 2010). Folk Music from the Slovak Mountains: Lecture / Demonstration of the Fujara and Other Overtone Flutes – Benjamin Botkin Folklife Lecture Series. Thomas Jefferson Building: American Folklife Center ; Websites ;

Name: Fujara. Type: Aerophones > Flute > Duct > External. Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12 Country: Slovakia. Region: Continental & East Europe.

Description: The fujara [in Slovakian [ˈfujara]) originated in central Slovakia as a large sophisticated folk shepherd’s overtone fipple flute of unique design. It is technically a contrabass in the tabor pipe class.

Features: Ranging from 160 mm to 200 cm long and in 1.7 metres in length. The fujara is tuned in the available keys A / G or F. It has three tone holes [also called finger holes] located on the lower part of the main body. The sound is produced by a fipple at the upper end of the main body of the fujara.

Citations: Bibliography; Eischek, Oskár 2006 Fujara : The Slovak Queen of European Flutes. Bratislava: Hudobné centrum. ISBN 978-80-88884-91-0 ; Garnett, Rod 2004. Flutes of Slovakia: fujara, koncovka, šesťdierková píšťalka and dvojačka ; Laramie, Wyoming University of Wyoming. pp. 8–10. OCLC 55993856 ; Rychlik, Bohuslav Bob; American Musical Instrument Society (May 27, 2010). Folk Music from the Slovak Mountains: Lecture / Demonstration of the Fujara and Other Overtone Flutes – Benjamin Botkin Folklife Lecture Series. Thomas Jefferson Building: American Folklife Center ; Websites ;

Flageolet

Name: Flageolet.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Many.
Region: Continental Europe.

Description: The flageolet is a woodwind instrument and a member of the fipple flute family. Its invention was erroneously ascribed to the 16th-century Sieur Juvigny in 1581. There are two basic forms of the instrument: the French, having four finger holes on the front and two thumb holes on the back; and the English, having six finger holes on the front and sometimes a single thumb hole on the back.

The latter was developed by English instrument maker William Bainbridge, resulting in the “improved English flageolet” in 1803. There are also double and triple flageolets, having two or three bodies that allowed for a drone and countermelody. Flageolets were made until the 19th century when they were succeeded by the cheaper and more easily made tin whistle.

Flageolets have varied greatly during the last 400 years. The first flageolets were called “French flageolets”, and have four tone-holes on the front and two on the back. This instrument was played by Hector Berlioz, Frédéric Chalon, Samuel Pepys, and Robert Louis Stevenson. Henry Purcell and George Frideric Handel both wrote pieces for it.

An early collection of manuscript Lessons for the Flajolet, dating from about 1676, is preserved in the British Library. Small versions of this instrument, called bird flageolets, were also made and were used for teaching birds to sing. These tiny flageolets have, like the French flageolet, four finger holes on the front and two thumb holes on the back.

The number of keys on French flageolets ranges from none to seven, the exception being the Boehm system French flageolet made by Buffet Crampon which had thirteen keys. The arrangement of the tone holes on the flageolet yields a scale different from that on the whistle or recorder. Whereas the whistle’s basic scale is D / E / F# / G / A / B / C# / D the flageolet’s basic scale is D / E / F / G / A / C / D. Cross-fingerings and keys are required to fill in the gaps.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, certain English instrument makers started to make flageolets with six finger-holes on the front. These instruments are called “English flageolets” and were eventually produced in metal as tin whistles. The keys number between none and six. Some were produced with changeable top joints which allowed the flageolet to be played as a flute or fife.

An English maker, William Bainbridge, in around 1810 patented a double flageolet which consisted of two English flageolets joined together so that the player could harmonize the tunes that he played. He also produced a triple flageolet which added a third, drone pipe which was fingered in a similar way to an ocarina.

The flageolet was eventually entirely replaced by the tin whistle and is rarely played today. However, it is a very easy instrument to play and the tone is soft and gentle. It has a range of about two octaves.

Construction: The flageolet is composed of several parts: the ivory beak serves as the instrument’s mouthpiece; the wind-way is a gradually expanding part that leads to the barrel. The barrel contains the fipple and together they form the wind channel which focusses the stream of air across the window and onto the labium [lip] where the stream is split, giving rise to a musical sound.

Finally, there is the body or bodies, in a double or triple flageolet which contains the finger holes and keys. The beak, wind-way and barrel do not contribute to sound production and the instrument can be played if these parts are missing.

Citations: Bibliography: Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary of Music And Musicians, 1980 / 1995 ISBN 1-56159-174-2 ;
Websites: flageolets.com

Flabiol

Name: Flabiol.
Type: Aerophones > Duct > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Catalan, Spain.
Region: Iberian Peninsula & Western Europe.

Description: The flabiol [in Catalan pronunciation in IPA: fləβiˈɔl] is a Catalan woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes. It is one of the 12 instruments of the cobla. The flabiol measures about 25 cm in length and has five or six holes on its front face and three underneath.

Varieties: The two main types are the dry flabiol without keys, usually made of a hardwood such as bubinga and the keyed flabiol used in coblas for sardana dances and in other folk music ensembles. The flabiol is normally played by the left hand while the player uses the right hand to beat a small drum [called tamborí] attached to the left elbow. All sardanes played by a cobla begin with a short introduction [introit] from the flabiol which is terminated by a single tap of the tamborí.

Its traditional geographic zone extends from the south of Catalonia to the Roussillon area of France, and from the Eastern strip of Aragon to the Balearic islands, where it is used as solo instrument with its own melodies. Apart from being in the cobla for the performance of sardanes, the flabiol is also found in the reduced version of the cobla known as cobla of three quarters formed of one tarota or tible, a flabiol and a sac de gemecs [bagpipes].

Citations: Bibliography: Jeremy Montagu, Was the Tabor Pipe Always as We Know It?, in Early Music, Vol 9, No. 1. p 141 ; Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham, Richard Trillo, World Music: The Rough Guide, Vol 1, p 108 ; Walter Aaron Clark, Isaac Albéniz: Portrait of a Romantic, Oxford University Press, 2002 p 197 ;

Dudka

Name: Dudka.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.221.12
Country: Byelorussia, Russia & Ukraine.
Region: East Europe.

Description: The dudka is a duct flute that is played in Byelorussia, Russia and Ukraine. Belorussian regional names include pasvistsyol, svistsyol [in Byelorussian; свистсиол] , svishchik [in Byelorussian; свисхцхик], svistok [in Byelorussian: свисток], sipovka [in Byelorussian: сиповка] and sapyolka [in Byelorussian: сапиолка] .

Etymology: The name dudka has the same root as dut [‘blow’] and dukh [‘air’]. These names reflect regional tone and register characteristics: in central Belarus the sound is high, clear, sonorous, and somewhat chilly, while in the south it is muted and murky, enriched by noisy overtones.

Construction: The names of the dudka’s parts imply anthropomorphism: the tube is called a body, the plug is a heart or navel, the beak is a nose, etc. Dudkas differ in size ranging from 1.5 cm to 45 cm in length, rarely up to 80 cm in length. Their number of finger-holes, none or four to eight although most commonly six or seven. The range of the dudka may include from one to nine notes, and finally the tuning.

Citations: Bibliography: Inna D. Nazina and Ihor Macijewski ; Websites: Grove Music Online / Dudka article / ;

Dili Kaval

Name: Dili Kaval.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Country: Azerbaijan.
Region: Caucasus.

Description: The dili kaval [in Azeri: Tütək] is a traditional fipple flute from Turkey and Azerbaijan. They are typically made of plum, ebony, or apricot wood. They have a seven holes on the front and a thumb hole on the back.

Playing Techniques: The lowest hole on the front is seldom played, if ever covered while playing. Similar to a penny whistle, the register can be controlled by the force of breath. The word “dilli” is Turkish for “tongued” and alludes to the fact that this flute has a duct or “fipple” rather than being rim-blown like a conventional kaval.

Construction: The tube of the flute is made of apricot, walnut or mulberry or reed. The tube of the flute is 280 mm to 300 mm in length and 20 mm in diameter. It has seven finger-holes on the front side and one on the back side. A wooden plug, which is cut slantwise, is inserted into the top end of the dilli kaval.  

Citations: Websites: Atlas of Traditional Music Azerbaijan ; Youtube Video by @ By Ögr. Gör. Dr. Mahmut Karagenç  İzmir Kültür Sanat ve Eğitim Vakfı

Dentsivka

Name: Dentsivka.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Duct.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.221.12
Country: Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The dentsivka [in Ukrainian: Денцівка] pronounced as “Denchivka”. It is thus classified as a duct flute. The dentsivka is often commonly called a sopilka, however, the dentsivka has a fipple, like the western European recorder. In recent times the use of chromatic ten-hole fingering was developed for the instrument. Where as in western Ukraine. Some dentsivkas only have five tone holes.

The same chromatic approach is applied to other flutes found in Ukraine. The dentsivka is made in a number of sizes from piccolo tuned in F prima in C, alto in G, tenor in F to the bass in C. Concert versions of the prima are available, the best being sold in Ukrainian music stores under the name “mala fleita”.

Construction: Usually it is made from a tube of wood approximately 30 to 40 cm [12 to 16 in] length. Tone holes are cut or burnt into the tube and a fipple made at one end. If the fipple is in the top of the instrument on the same plane as the playing holes, instead of the underside, the instrument is a kosa dudka [in Ukrainian: Коса дудка], though they may fail to be distinguished.

The internal diameter is usually 12 to 14 mm [0.4 to 0.5 in] with the walls of the tube being 2 mm to 3 mm [0.08 in to 0.12 in] thick. In traditional instruments the tuning varied with the length of the tube, but was usually diatonic, with a range of two and a half octaves.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: dbpedia Densivka [article] ;