Category Archives: Open



Name: Flogera.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Open > Ended.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Greece.
Region: Mediterranean.

Description: The floghera [in Greek: φλογέρα, pronounced floˈʝeɾa] is a type of flute used in Greek folk music. It is a simple end-blown bamboo flute without a fipple, which is played by directing a narrow air stream against its sharp, open upper end. It typically has seven finger holes.

Citations: Bibliography: George Papadelis and George Papanikolaou 1991. “An acoustical approach to the Greek flogera”;


Name: Frilka.
Type: Aerophones > Open > Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The frilka [in Ukrainian: Фрілка frilka] it is an open ended flute that is played in a similar manner to a kaval. The frilka is a smaller version of the floyarka. It was often played at funerals in the Carpathian mountains. Shepherds were also able to accompany themselves with guttural humming which produced an ostinato tone or drone.

Construction: It is a pipe of approximately a 20 cm [8 inches] in length. One end is sharpened and the breath is broken against one of the sides of the tube at the playing end. Six finger-holes now often 10 in groups of three are burnt out in the center of the instrument.

Citations: Bibliography: [in Ukrainian] Гуменюк, А. Українські народні музичні інструменти – Київ: Наукова думка, 1967 Мізинець, V; Українські народні інструменти – Мельбурн: книги Байди, 1984; Cherkasky, L; – Українські народні музичні інструменти Техніка, Київ, Україна, 2003 – 262 с. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ; [in English] Gumenyuk, A. Ukrainian folk musical instruments – Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1967 Miinets, V; Ukrainian Folk Instruments – Melbourne: Baiedy’s Book, 1984; Cherkasky, L; – Ukrainian folk musical instruments Technique, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2003 – 262 p. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ;


Name: Kaval.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Open > Ended.
Hornbostel-Sachs. No#: 421.111.12
Country: Many, Bulgaria, Turkey & Armenia.
Region: Balkans & South Eastern Europe.

Description: The kaval [in Bulgarian: Кавал] is a chromatic open-ended flute traditionally played throughout the Balkans, it is found in Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedonia, Greece, Anatolia including Turkey and Armenia. The kaval is primarily associated with mountain shepherds. The kaval has a total of 8 playing holes that are equidistantly spaced. Seven finger-holes are drilled into the top, one thumb hole on the bottom of the kaval near the bevel. There is usually four more un-fingered intonation holes near the bottom of the kaval.

Tunings: The kaval can be made in various tunings, although D being the most common. In the south-west Rhodope mountains, two kavals in the same tuning [called chifte kavali] are played together, one performing the melody, the other a drone. This type of kaval is made from one piece of wood. A similar use of the kaval is also known in Macedonia and Kosovo, where one kaval of the pair usually a lower one of a same key is ‘male’, the other kaval played as a drone is ‘female’.

Construction: While typically made of wood [cornel cherry, apricot, plum, boxwood, mountain ash, etc], kavals are also made from water buffalo horn, Arundo donax L. [Persian reed], metal and plastic. The Bulgarian kaval, once made of a single piece of wood, is now constructed of three separate sections of cornel, walnut, plum or boxwood, with a total length of 60 cm to 90 cm.

Bone rings cover the joints, to prevent the wood from cracking. Metal decoration is also found. The finger-holes are located in the central section, while the lower [shorter] section has four additional holes called dushnitsi or dyavolski dupki [‘devil’s holes’]; these are not covered in performance.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: