Category Archives: Open

Open

Washint

Name: Washint.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Ethiopia.
Region: Africa.

Description: The washint is an end-blown flute originally played in Ethiopia. It is played by the Azmari’s who are bards, analogous to Griots or Bards. They would pass their oral history through melody accompanied on the washint as well as the krar [plucked lyre], the masenqo [bowed instrument].

Construction: The washint can be constructed using wood, bamboo, or other cane. Varieties exists in different lengths and relative finger-hole placement. Also a performer might use several different flutes over the course of a performance to accommodate different song types. It generally has four finger-holes, which allows the player to create a pentatonic scale.

Citations: Bibliography: Nidel, Richard 2005 – World Music: The Basics. Routlidge Taylor & Francis Group, NY. Websites; Washint Melody [youtube video] ;

Palendag

Name: Palendag.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Philippines.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The palendag, also called Pulalu [in Manobo and Mansaka], Palandag [Bagobo], Pulala [Bukidnon] and Lumundeg [Banuwaen] is a type of Philippine bamboo flute, the largest one used by the Maguindanaon, a smaller type of this instrument is called the Hulakteb (Bukidnon). For the Maguindanaon, the palendag was used for intimate gatherings for families in the evening.

Construction: The construction of the mouthpiece is such that the lower end is cut diagonally to accommodate the lower lip and the second diagonal cut is make for the blowing edge. Among the Bukidnon, a similar instrument with the same construction except that it is three-fourths the length of the palendag, is called the hulakteb.

Citations: Bibliography: Hans Brandeis – Musical Instruments for Individual Use. Music and Dance of the Bukidnon-s of Mindanao -A Short Introduction; Archived from the original on June 16, 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2006 ;

Floyara

Name: Floyara.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The floyara [in Ukrainian: Флояра pronounced “floy-arka”]. It is open ended notched flute that is approximately a metre in length. The top end is bevelled, much like the Greek Flogera or Kaval. The floyara was often played at funerals in the Carpathian mountains. The floyarka is often called a frilka or sometimes zubivka in central Ukraine.

Playing Techniques: Shepherds were also able to accompany themselves with guttural humming which produced an ostinato tone or drone.

Construction: The floyarka is a smaller version of the floyara and is similar in length to the frilka. The floyara is approximately 60 cm [24 in] in length. The mouth piece is bevelled in the same manner as the flogera or kaval. Six finger holes are drilled into the flute and spaced according to pitch.

Citations: Bibliography: Humeniuk, A. Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty – Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1967 ; Mizynec, V. Ukrainian Folk Instruments Melbourne: Bayda books, 1984 ; Cherkasky, L. – Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty // Tekhnika, Kiev, Ukraine, 2003 – 262 pages. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ;

Supelka

Name: Supelka.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: North Macedonia.
Region: Balkans & South Eastern Europe.

Description: The Šupelka [in Macedonian: шупелка, or in Latin script Šupelka, in API: ‘ʃupɛɫka] is a Macedonian traditional woodwind instrument very similar to the kaval. It is mostly made of walnut, cornel, ash, or maple wood. The šupelka plays a chromatic scale [two octaves], with the exception of the first note of the lower octave. In the lower register, the šupelka gives a soft and pleasant sound, while the upper register tone is sharp and high-pitched.

The instrument represents a chromatic end-blown flute with openings on both sides of the cylindrical form. The upper opening serves for blowing [called ustinje or rez], with narrow sharp edges to tear the air and complete the sound. On its front side, the šupelka has six playing holes, although there are some šupelka’s with seven playing holes. While playing the šupelka it is held with both hands, leaning to the left about 45 degrees towards the vertical.

Its length varies between 240 mm and 350 mm. The tone is produced by blowing a hole with slimmed and rounded edges [ustinje], so that the mouth covers the hole for about three quarters. The musical repertoire of the instrument consists of improvising traditional melodies, as a background instrument in musical performances imitating the sounds of other instruments used in the Macedonian traditional music.

Considered to be primarily a sheepherder’s instrument, the šupelka is widespread in Macedonia. The šupelka receives its name from the Macedonian word shupliv [in Macedonian: шуплив], meaning hollow. It has also many similarities with the Arabic woodwind instruments gasba, used in Tunisia and Algeria.

Citations: Bibliography: “Народни инструменти – Шупелка” [in Macedonian] translation in English as “Folk Instruments Shupelka” www.imor.org.mk 2007. Retrieved 3 March 2014 ; Боривоје Џимревски 2000. Шупелката во Mакедонија [in Macedonian]. Институт за фолклор “Марко Цепенков“. ISBN 9989-642-09-5 ; “Народни инструменти – дувачки – Шупелка” [in Macedonian], www.kralemarko.org.mk – Traditional Instruments in Macedonia [in Macedonian] Skopje, Macedonia: Makedonska Kniga 1986 ;

Zybuvka

Name: Zybuvka.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Carpathian Mountains, Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The zubivka [in Ukrainian: Зубівка, Hungarian: Beregfogaras] also known as a Skosivka, Skisna Dudka, or Frukanka. The zubivka is considered one of the oldest folk wind instruments in Ukraine and is found primarily in the Carpathian region.

It was first described by wandering Arabic scholars in the 11th century. This instrument is very similar to the telenka. it is an open-ended flute. Played not unlike the floyara by having the breath break against the side of the pipe. This surface is wedge-shaped. The zubivka is usually approximately 60 cm [24 in] long.

Citations: Bibliography: [in Ukrainian] Гуменюк А. – Українські народні музичні інструменти – Київ: Наукова думка, 1967 р. Мизинец, В. – Українські народні інструменти – Мельбурн: книги Байди, 1984 р. Черкаський, Л. – Українські народні музичні інструменти // Техніка, Київ, Україна, 2003 р. 262 сторінки. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ; [in English] Gumenyuk A. – Ukrainian folk musical instruments – Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1967 Myzynets, V. – Ukrainian folk instruments – Melbourne: books by Baidy, 1984 Cherkassy, ​​L. – Ukrainian folk musical instruments // Technique, Kyiv, Ukraine , 2003 262 pages. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ;

Frilka

Name: Frilka.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The frilka [in Ukrainian: Фрілка Frilka] an open ended flute that is played in a similar manner to a kaval. The frilka is a smaller version of the floyarka. It was often played at funerals in the Carpathian mountains. Shepherds were also able to accompany themselves with guttural humming which produced an ostinato tone or drone.

Construction: It is a pipe of approximately a 20 cm [8 inches] in length. One end is sharpened and the breath is broken against one of the sides of the tube at the playing end. Six finger-holes now often 10 in groups of three are burnt out in the center of the instrument.

Citations: Bibliography: [in Ukrainian] Гуменюк, А. Українські народні музичні інструменти – Київ: Наукова думка, 1967 Мізинець, V; Українські народні інструменти – Мельбурн: книги Байди, 1984; Cherkasky, L; – Українські народні музичні інструменти Техніка, Київ, Україна, 2003 – 262 с. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ; [in English] Gumenyuk, A. Ukrainian folk musical instruments – Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1967 Miinets, V; Ukrainian Folk Instruments – Melbourne: Baiedy’s Book, 1984; Cherkasky, L; – Ukrainian folk musical instruments Technique, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2003 – 262 p. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ;

Larchemi

Name: Larchemi.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Georgia.
Region: Caucasus.

Description: The larchemi [in Georgian: ლარჭემი] or soinari [in Georgian: სოინარი] is an ancient Georgian musical instrument of the panpipe family. It is known as “larchemi” in Samegrelo and “soinari” in Guria, but there is no difference in the instrument; those in Guria may be smaller. The larchemi was in the past found also in Abkhazia, Imereti and Lazeti [where it was called ostvinoni]. By 1958, when it was studied by Kakhi Rosebashvili, it had largely disappeared.

The larchemi consists of a row of six reed pipes. Two bass pipes in the middle are tuned a second apart; the other pipes are tuned in thirds from them. The instrument can be played by two performers, who take three pipes each.

Citations: Bibliography: Larchemi-Soinari. Open Museum: State Museum of Georgian Folk Songs and Musical Instruments ~ Nina Shvelidze 2006 ; In: Rusudan Turtsumia, Joseph Jordania [eds.]: Second International Symposium on Traditional Polyphony. Tiflis: International Research Center for Traditional Polyphony of Tbilisi State Conservatoire. p. 407–412 ;

Kaliyuka

Name: Kaliyuka.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Russia.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The kalyuka [or Kolyuka in Russian: Калюка, Колюка] is a Russian and Ukrainian overtone flute, lacking playing holes. In Eastern traditions, Kalyuka were played on summer evenings after the hay was harvested from suitable crops with a scythe.

The kalyuka player was often accompanied by percussionists who kept pace with the melody. The existence of the tradition was uncovered in 1980 by students of the Moscow and St. Petersburg Conservatories.

Playing Technique: The upper end of the Kalyuka is open, and although it has a built-in fipple to produce sound, a player should also partly close the opening of the tube with the tongue. The lower end of the tube is also open and occasionally there is a small side hole near the end. The side hole and/or end are opened and closed while playing to produce different notes [like the Slovak Koncovka]. Higher tones are reached through over blowing.

Construction: Traditionally, Kalyukas were made from hollow plant stems, such as Motherwort, or Angelica. Modern versions of the instrument are usually made from PVC [Poly Vinyl Chloride] an inexpensive and durable substitute.

Citations: Bibliography ; Иванов А.Н. Волшебная флота южнорусского фольклора. Сохранирование и возведение фольклорных традиций. 2-е издание. Москва, 1993 ; Банин А.А. Русская инструментальная музыка фольклорной традиции. Москва, 1997. [с.85] ; Ivanov A.N. The magical flute of South Russian folklore. Preservation and erection of folklore traditions. 2nd edition. Moscow, 1993; Banin A.A. Russian instrumental music of folk tradition. Moscow, 1997. [p.85] ;