Category Archives: Transverse

Transverse

Veenu

Name: Veenu.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The veenu [in Sanskrit: वेणु; veṇu] in the Dravidian languages this flute is known by many names including [in Tamil புல்லாங்குழல் ; pullankuzhal], [in Malayalam: പുല്ലാങ്കുഴല് ; pullāṅkuḻal], [in Kannada: ಕೊಳಲು ; Kolalu], [in Telugu: పిల్లన గ్రోవి pillana grōvi or వేణువు Vēṇuvu].

The veenu is one of the ancient transverse [side blown]  flutes of Indian classical music. It is an aerophone typically made from bamboo. The veenu continues to be in use in the South Indian Carnatic music tradition.

History: The venu is discussed as an important musical instrument in the Natya Shastra, the classic Hindu text on music and performance arts. The ancient Sanskrit texts of India describe other side blown flutes such as the murali and vamsika, but sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. The venu is mentioned in the iconography of Hindu god Krishna.

Playing Techniques: Circular breathing is used when playing the venu as with numerous other Indian flute or single reed instruments.

Citations: Bibliography: Lochtefeld 2002, p. 747 ; Bruno Nettl; Thomas Turino; Isabel Wong; et al. 2015. Excursions in World Music. Taylor & Francis. p. 691. ISBN 978-1-317-35029-3. Dalal 2014, p. 163. Rowell 2015, pp. 99–103. The Bhaktirasāmṛtasindhu of Rūpa Gosvāmin; Motilal Banarsidass. 2003. p. 217. ISBN 978-81-208-1861-3. Tarla Mehta 1995. Sanskrit Play Production in Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-81-208-1057-0.

Beck, Guy 1993. Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred Sound. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-855-6. Caudhurī, Vimalakānta Rôya 2000. The Dictionary of Hindustani Classical Music. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1708-1. Dalal, Roshen 2014. Northern Indian Music, Volume 1. Theory & technique; Volume 2. The main rāgǎs. London: C. Johnson. OCLC 851080. Gautam, M.R. 1993 – Evolution of Raga and Tala in Indian Music. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-0442-2. Kaufmann, Walter 1968. The Ragas of North India. Oxford & Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34780-0. OCLC 11369. Lochtefeld, James G. 2002. ISBN 978-0-8239-2287-1. Martinez, José Luiz 2001. Semiosis in Hindustani Music. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1801-9. Nettl, Bruno; Ruth M. Stone; James Porter; Timothy Rice 1998, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia : the Indian subcontinent ; Routledge, ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1 Randel, Rowell, Lewis 2015. Music and Musical Thought in Early India. University of Chicago Press ; ISBN 978-0-226-73034-9 ; Neil Sorrell ; Ram Narayan 1980. Indian Music in Performance: A Practical Introduction. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-0756-9 – Te Nijenhuis, Emmie 1974 ; Indian Music: History and Structure – BRILL Academic ; ISBN 90-04-03978-3. Wilke, Annette; Moebus, Oliver 2011. Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-024003-0

Minteki

Name: Minteki.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The minteki [in Japanese kanji: 明笛; also called shinteki [in kanji: 清笛] is a Japanese transverse flute or fue. It was first introduced to Japan from China in 1629. It is found in minshingaku [明清楽] ensembles.

Citations:

Ryuteki

Name: Ryuteki.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The ryūteki [in Japanese, Kanji 龍笛, literally “dragon flute”] is a Japanese transverse flute made of bamboo. It is used in gagaku, the Shinto classical music that is associated with Japan’s imperial court. The sound of the ryūteki is said to represent the dragons which ascend the skies between the heavenly lights [represented by the shō] and the people of the earth [represented by the hichiriki].

The ryūteki is one of the three flutes used in gagaku, in particular to play songs of Chinese style. Ryuteki is played solo at the beginning of Chuseigaku. The pitch is lower than that of the komabue and higher than that of the kagurabue.

Playing Techniques: Circular breathing is used when playing the ryuteki. This allows for the manipulation of grace notes and other features specific to gagaku.

Construction: The ryūteki is held horizontally, has seven finger holes, and has a length of 40 cm [1 ft 4 in] and an inner diameter of 1.3 cm [1⁄2 in]. Seven finger-holes are burnt into the wood.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Met Museum [Ryuteki article] ;

Sogeum

Name: Sogeum.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Korea.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The sogeum [in Hangul: 소금 in Hanja: 小琴 or 小笒] it is also spelt as sogum or sogŭm. The sogeum is a small bamboo transverse flute used in traditional Korean music. Unlike the larger daegeum, it does not have a buzzing membrane; although it did have one in ancient times. It is used in court, aristocratic and folk music and in the 21st century additional repertoire includes contemporary classical music, popular music and film scores.

Citations:

Irish-Flute

Name: Irish-Flute.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Ireland.
Region: North Western Europe.

Description: The term Irish Flute refers to a conical-bore, simple-system wooden flute of the type favoured by classical flautists of the early 19th century, or to a flute of modern manufacture derived from this design, often with modifications to optimize its use in traditional Irish and Scottish musics. This flute is played in almost every country in Ireland and has a very strong presence in the mid-western countries of Roscommon, Leitrim, Sligo, South Fermanagh, East Galway, Clare and West Limerick also having a reputation.

Tunings: The flute is tuned with keyless finger-holes playing a diatonic major scale as the tone holes are successively uncovered. Flutes from the Classical era and some of modern manufacture will include metal keys and additional tone holes to achieve partial or complete chromatic tonality.

Most Irish flutes are commonly pitched in D, other keys are available ranging from E flat, B flat and C. Although referred to as a D flute, this is a non-transposing instrument, so if you finger C, a concert-pitch C is sounded. The name D-flute comes from the fact that the simplest 6-hole wooden flute has D as its lowest note and plays the scale of D without any cross-fingering. The E-flat, B flat and C versions are transposing instruments.

Playing Techniques: The simple system flute has a distinctly different timbre from the Western concert flute. Most Irish flute players tend to strive for a dark tone in comparison to classical flautists.

Citations: Bibliography: Breathnach, Breandán: Folk Music and Dances of Ireland, 1971 ISBN 1-900428-65-2 ; Gearóid Ó hallmhuráin, 1998 ; A Pocket History of Irish Traditional Music. Dublin: O’Brien Press ; The Flute and its Patrons, Chapter XXVII of Francis O’Neill’s Irish Minstrels and Musicians. Taylor, Barry 2013 ; Music in a Breeze of Wing; Traditional Dance Music in West-Clare 1870-1970. Danganella: Barry Taylor. ISBN 978-0-9927356-0-9 ;

Strancica

Name: Strančica.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Croatia.
Region: Balkans & Eastern Europe.

Description: The strančica, or fajfa, is an old traditional instrument once used in the northwestern area of Croatia [Croatian Zagorje, Podravina and Bilogora]. The name itself indicates a specific way of playing – on the side like the flute. The strančica is a forerunner of today’s flutes.

Construction: It is made of wood, usually of elder wood. Besides the glasnica [a blow hole], it can have six or seven holes for playing. The strančica sometimes had tin-inlay decorations.

Citations:

Junggeum

Name: Junggeum.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Chordophones No#: 421.121.12
Country: Korea.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The junggeum [in Hangul 중금 ; in Hanja 中琴 or 中笒] also spelled chunggum or chunggŭm. is a medium-sized bamboo transverse flute formerly used in traditional Korean music. Unlike the larger daegeum, it does not have a buzzing membrane (although it did have one in ancient times). It was used in court, aristocratic, and folk music, but has largely died out, being rarely used today.

Other flutes in the same family include the daegeum and sogeum; the three together are known as samjuk [in Hangul: 삼죽; in Hanja: 三竹; literally “three bamboo”], as the three primary flutes of the Silla period. Both of these are still used in traditional music, as well as in contemporary classical music, popular music, and film scores.

Citations:

Shinobue

Name: Shinobue.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The shinobue [In Japanese, kanji 篠笛; also called “takebue” in kanji: 竹笛] it is a Japanese transverse flute or fue that has a high-pitched sound. It is found in hayashi and nagauta ensembles. The shinobue plays important roles in noh and kabuki theatre music. It is heard in Shinto music such as kagura-den and in traditional Japanese folk songs.

History: The shinobue was not originally devised in Japan, it is thought that “Ryuteki” was originally transmitted from Chinese mainland as gagaku flute was supposed to have spread and spread among the common people. During the 8th century [Nara period] and later the 9th century [Heian era] the flute was introduced to Nara, Shosoin, Miyagi prefecture and then Natori City “Shimizu site”.

Excavated flutes have been studied, the scales and structures are each flute differ from each other. To date there is no consensus of a unified history of the flute in Japan. The shinobue to be described later was developed by Yoshinori Fukuhara from the Taisho and the 6th generations from the Taisho era to the early Showa era and the name “Shinobue” was also attached to the flute by Fifu Hoshino Kosuke 5th at that time.

The two styles uta [song] and hayashi [festival]. The uta is tuned to the chromatic scale and it can be played in ensembles or as a solo instrument. The Hayashi is not in the correct pitch, because it is simply a piece of hollow bamboo with holes cut into it. It emits a very high-pitched sound as such, it appropriate for festival / folk music of Japan. Both shinobue flutes play a very important role in the Japanese theatre.

Citations: Bibliography: David W. Hughes, Fue, Ongaku Daijiten / Encyclopedia of Music, Tokyo 1981 ; Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary of Music ~ Vol, 3 Book P to Z Page 374 ; Websites: Taiko-shop.com / Fingering Chart of Shinobue ;

 

Nokhan

Name: Nokhan.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The Nohkan [in Japanese, Kanji 能管] is a high pitched, Japanese bamboo transverse flute or fue [笛]. It is commonly used in traditional Imperial Noh and Kabuki theatre. The nohkan flute was created by Kan’ami and his son Zeami in the 15th century, during the time when the two were transforming the Noh theatre forms Dengaku and Sarugaku.

Construction: The nohkan or fue’ [flute] is made of split and tapered strips of smoked bamboo [susudake] or burned bamboo [yakidake], glued together to form a tapering conical bore. The smoking carbonizes the bamboo and preserves it. The split strips of bamboo are reversed to place the hard bamboo surface on the inside for improved acoustics.

Some modern versions of nohkan use an interior coating of tempera paint for this. The strips are then glued together, bound with thin strips of twisted cherry bark [kabamaki] and lacquered to make the conical tube. The result is a keyless tube of 39.1 cm with an average bore width of 1.7 cm and there are 7 finger holes.

Citations: Bibliography: Ethnomusicology, Vol. 9, No. 3 [Sep. 1965], pp. 221–239 ;

Komabue

Name: Komabue.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Transverse.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.121.12
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: A Komabue [in Japanese: 高麗笛 Komabue lit. Translation “Korean Flute”] is a Japanese transverse flute or fue. The komabue is used in both Gagaku and Komagaku. Historically the Oga family of musicians in Japan specialized in the komabue.

The komabue is typically constructed from bamboo, it is a transverse flute with six finger-holes. It is 36 cm in shorter in length to the  ryuteki flute.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: