Category Archives: Gallery

Gallery

Volynka

Name: Volynka.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Bagpipes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.112
Country: Russian Federation.
Region: Eastern Europe & Eurasia.

Description: The volynka [in Ukrainian: волинка, Russian: волынка, Crimean Tatar: tulup zurna] is a bagpipe. Its etymology comes from the region Volyn, Ukraine, where it was borrowed from Romania.

Construction: The volynka is constructed around a goat skin air reservoir into which air is blown through a pipe with a valve to stop air escaping. Modern concert instruments often have a reservoir made from a bladder. A number of playing pipes [two to four] extend from the reservoir holding the air. The main playing pipe on which the melody is played has five to seven, sometimes eight finger holes.

The other pipes produce a drone. This is usually either a single tonic note or a perfect fifth. Each of these playing pipes has a double reed usually made from a goose quill. In the 20th century this instrument has lost the popularity it had previously, and is rarely used today in an authentic context.

Citations: Bibliography: Humeniuk, A. Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty – Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1967 ; Mizynec, V. Ukrainian Folk Instruments – Melbourne: Bayda books 1984 ; Cherkasky, L. Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty // Tekhnika, Kiev, Ukraine 2003 – 262 pages. ISBN 966-575-111-5 ;

Xeremia

Name: Xeremia.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Bagpipes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.112
Country: Majorca [Mallorca], Spain.
Region: Iberian Peninsula & Western Europe.

Description: The xeremia [in Catalan xeremia in IPA: ʃəɾəˈmi.ə], plural xeremies] is a type of bagpipe native to the island of Majorca [Mallorca].

History:The first documented evidence of bagpipes in the Iberian Peninsula dates to the Middle Ages. The first documentation and written evidence dates to the 9th century, in a letter from Saint Jerome to Dardanus: “The chorus is a simple leather hide with two brass tubes. The player blows into one, and the chorus emits the sound through the other”.

The influence of the court of Aragon and particularly that of Catalonia in the Balearic Islands and the cultural exchanges on both sides of the Pyrenees together with Catalan hegemony in Occitania. Which had been a strong cultural center, caused an increase the number of bards and minstrels increased. In 1209 there was a massive migration of bards and minstrels fleeing Occitania, due to repression by the northern French monarchs, encouraged by Pope Innocent III.

Bagpipes became prominent in those areas where the courts of Aragon and Catalonia had influence. When James I the Conqueror, conquered Majorca and Ibiza and repopulated those lands with his vassals of Catalan origin, they brought the bagpipes with them: the sac de gemecs, from which the Mallorcan xeremia [xeremia mallorquina] is derived.

In the archive of the Crown of Aragon there is a document from the year 1343 that names one Joan Mascum, bagpipe minstrel to the king, from Majorca in reference to king James III. Further, it is known that the minstrels of the king of Mallorca brought to the court of Peter IV the ceremonial playing of the bagpipe through the city of Tortosa in the year 1353. There are further reports that bagpipers from a variety of nations would congregate, especially during Lent.

Etymology: The name xeremia is of French origin. The Old French word chalemie over time became charemie. This is related to the influence of Occitania during the Kingdom of Aragon, as Catalan was quite strong from the year 531 to approximately 1131, as the Occitan cultural centre expanded through the means of minstrels and bards, throughout the territory that would later be known as Catalonia.

The instrument’s name may be used in the singular or in the plural and has several variants, depending on the location. In Ibiza the instrument exists only without a bag, but is called also Xeremia. In the Balearic Islands it is called xeremia, xirimia, xeremies o xirimies while in Catalonia it is known as sac de gemecs.

Construction: It consists of a bag made of skin or modern synthetic materials, known as a sac or sarró which retains the air, a blowpipe [bufador], a melody pipe or chanter [grall] and several, generally three, drones [bordons]. The primary drone [roncó] sounds a tonic note, but the other drones are sometimes simply false drones for ornamentation.

Citations: Bibliography: Genovart Espinosa, Antoni [October 2007, archived by way back machine]. “Xeremies i Xeremiers a Mallorca”. Sant Llorenç des Cardassar, Spain. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2007; Breno [2002-03-02]. “Xeremies mallorquina, un poco de lenguas, geografia e historia”. Archived from the original on December 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-30 ; Cucurull, Tomàs [2007]. “Es sac de gemecs. El sac de gemecs” [año 2000 ed.]. Sant Jaume dels Domenys, Cataluña, Spain. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011 ;

Sac De Gemecs

Name: Sac De Gemecs.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Bagpipes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.112
Country: Catalan, Spain.
Region: Iberian Peninsula & Western Europe.

Description: The Sac de Gemecs [in Catalan: Pronunciation in IPA: ˈsaɡ də ʒəˈmeks – literally “bag of moans”]. In Andorra the sac de gemecs is known as a buna [‘buna] or coixinera [kuʃiˈneɾə], gaita [ˈɡajtə] or botella [buˈteʎə] is a type of bagpipe found in Catalonia, eastern Spain and in Southern France.

Legend: The instrument is mentioned in the Andorran legend “El Buner d’Ordino” in which a bagpiper from the parish of Ordino, en route to a festival in Canillo, is chased and treed by wolves, but frightens them off by playing his buna.

Construction: The instrument consists of a chanter, a blowpipe, and three drones. The lowest drone [bordó llarg] plays a note two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. The middle drone [bordó mitjà] plays a fifth above the bass. The high drone [bordó petit] plays an octave below the chanter, thus one octave above the bass drone.

Citations: Bibliography: Àlvar Valls Oliva – Roser Carol Romàn; Àlvar Valls i Oliva; Roser Carol i Romàn [15 November 2010] ; Llegendes d’Andorra. L’Abadia de Montserrat. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-84-9883-340-9 ;

Guitarra Leona

Name: Guitarra Leona.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Guitarillos > Bajo.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Country: Veracruz, Mexico.
Region: Central America.

Description: The Guitarra Leona [lioness] also goes by other names, bumburona, bombona, vozarrona, big guitar. It is a large-sized four stringed flat-backed composite lute that plays the role of bass in Son Jarocho. Slightly smaller in size to the guitarrone as played in Mariachi. It is struck with a plectrum that is usually a piece of bone or carved bull-horn.

Citations: Bibliography: Cultural Atlas of Mexico. Music . Mexico: Grupo Editorial Planeta. 1988. ISBN 968-406-121-8 ;

Baroque Guitar

Name: Baroque Guitar.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Period: 1600-1750.
Country: Many.
Region: Western Europe & Europe.

Description: The Baroque guitar [c. 1600–1750] is a string instrument with five courses of gut strings and moveable gut frets. The Baroque guitar replaced the Renaissance lute as the most common instrument found in the home.

The earliest attestation of a five-stringed guitar comes from the mid-sixteenth-century Spanish book Declaracion de Instrumentos Musicales by Juan Bermudo, published in 1555.

History: The first treatise published for the Baroque guitar was Guitarra Española de Cinco Ordenes. The Five-course Spanish Guitar c. 1590 by Juan Carlos Amat. The baroque guitar in contemporary ensembles took on the role of a basso continuo instrument and players would be expected to improvise a chordal accompaniment. Intimately tied to the development of the Baroque guitar is the alfabeto system of notation.

Tunings: Three different ways of tuning the guitar are well documented in seventeenth-century sources as set out in the following table. This includes the names of composers who are associated with each method. Very few sources seem to clearly indicate that one method of stringing rather than another should be used and it is often argued that it may have been up to the player to decide what was appropriate. The issue is highly contentious and different theories have been put forward.

Boroque Guitar Tunings
Ferdinando Valdambrini [Italy, 1646 / 7] A / D / G / B / E
Gaspar Sanz [Spain, 1674] A / D / G / B / E
Antoine Carre [France, 1671] D / G / B / E
Robert de Visée [France, 1682] D / G / B / E
Girolamo Montesardo [Italy, 1606] D / G / B / E
Benedetto Sanseverino [Italy, 1620] D / G / B / E
Giovanni Paolo Foscarini [Italy, 1640] D / G / B / E
Francisco Guerau [Spain, 1694] D / G / B / E

Citations: Bibliography: Harvey Turnbull, The Guitar – From The Renaissance to the Present Day 3rd, impression 1978 London: Batsford [ISBN 0 7134 3251 9] p. 15: Chapter 1 – The Development of the Instrument. Lex Eisenhardt, Bourdons as Usual – In The Lute: The Journal of the Lute Society, vol. XLVII 2007;

Gittern

Name: Gittern.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Country: Many.
Region: Western Europe.

Description: The gittern was a relatively small gut stringed bowl-backed instrument. It first appeared in literature and pectoral representation during the 13th century in Western Europe; in which this includes Iberian Peninsula, Italy, France and England. The name of this instrument changed by way in language based on where the gittern was played.

It was also called the guiterna in Spain, guiterne or guiterre in France, the chitarra in Italy and quintern in Germany. A popular instrument with court musicians, minstrels, and amateurs, the gittern is considered ancestral to the modern guitar other instruments like the mandore, bandurria and gallichon.

Etymology: The gittern had faded so completely from memory in England. Identifying the instrument proved problematic for 20th century early music scholarship. It was assumed the ancestry of the modern guitar was only to be discovered through the study of flat-backed instruments. As a consequence, what is now believed to be the only known surviving medieval citole was until recently labelled a gittern.

In 1977, Lawrence Wright published his article The Medieval Gittern and Citole: A Case of Mistaken Identity. in issue 30 of the Galpin Society Journal; with detailed references to primary historical source material revealing the gittern as a round-backed instrument – and the so-called ‘Warwick Castle gittern’ [a flat-backed instrument] as originally a citole.

Wright’s research also corresponded with observations about the origins of the flat-backed guitarra made by the 16th century Spanish musicologist Juan Bermudo. With this theoretical approach it became possible for scholars to untangle previously confusing and contradictory nomenclature. Because of the complex nature of the subject, the list and links below should assist in further reading.

History: From the early 16th century, a vihuela shaped and flat-backed guitarra began to appear in Spain and then later in France in coexistence with the gittern. Although the round-backed instrument appears to have lost ground to the new from which gradually developed into the guitar familiar today, the influence of the earlier style continued.

Examples of lutes converted into guitars exist in several museums, while purpose-built instruments like the gallichon utilized the tuning and single string configuration of the modern guitar. A tradition of building round-backed guitars in Germany continued to the 20th century with names like gittar-laute and Wandervogellaute.

Up until 2002, there were only two known surviving medieval gitterns, one in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the other in the Wartburg Castle Museum. A third was discovered in a medieval outhouse in Elbląg, Poland.

Construction: The back, neck and pegbox were likely carved from a single piece of timber. Occurring less rarely in the 15th century. The body was formed around system of tapered ribs. Unlike the sharp corner joining the body to the neck seen in the lute, the gittern’s body and neck either joined in a smooth curve or straight line. The sickle, or occasional gentle arc pegbox, made an angle with the neck of between 30-90 degrees. Unlike the lute, most pegboxes on gitterns ended in a carving of a human or animal head.

Most gitterns were depicted as having three courses [total of six pared strings] or more commonly four courses [total of eight pared strings]. There are also references to some five course gitterns in the 16th century. Although there is not much direct information concerning gittern tuning, the later versions were quite possibly tuned in fourths and fifths like the mandore a few decades later.

Frets were represented in a few depictions mainly Italian and German, although apparently absent in most French, Spanish and English depictions. The gittern’s sound hole was covered with a rosette, a delicate wood carving or parchment cutting, similar to the lute.

Citations: Bibliography: The Encyclopedia of Music. New York: Hermes House, 2002 P. 118 ;  The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments [2nd Edition] “Quinterne [quintern]” ; Tyler, James [January 1981]. “The Mandore in the 16th and 17th Centuries” [PDF]. Early Music. 9 ; Meucci, Renato. “Da ‘chitarra italiana’ a ‘chitarrone’: una nuova interpretazione”. Enrico Radesca da Foggia e il suo tempo: Atti del Convegno di studi, Foggia, 7-8 Aprile 2000. pp. 30–57. ISBN 978-887096347-2 ; Tyler, James; Sparks, Paul [1992]. The Early Mandolin. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 1–7. ISBN 0-19-816302-9 ;

Keteng-Keteng

Name: Keteng-Keteng.
Type: Cordophones > Zither > Tube.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 312.11
Country: Batak Karo area, North Sumatra, Indonesia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The Keteng-Keteng is a tube zither that is found in the Batak Karo area in North Sumatra, Indonesia. It is between 60 cm and 80 cm in length and usually about 10 cm to 15 cm in diameter. When the lower strings are beaten, they produce a sound resembling a gong.

The part played on this string, resembles the punctuating part of a gong in the main Batak Karo ceremonial orchestra, the Gendong Sarunai. It is played four, eight or 16 beat intervals. The other string, producing two pitches, contributes, to the stock melodic patterns. Rhythmically the music performed on this instrument, resembles the drumming in main ceremonial orchestra.

Construction: The tube is at each end retaining both nodes. A whole is cut into one node at the front and back of the tube. Two or occasionally three strings are cut from the same piece of bamboo. Bridges are inserted at both ends underneath each string.

The highest of the strings is raised by inserting a bridge in the middle. The insertion of the middle fret when raising the string, allows for two separate tones to be produced.

Citations: Bibliography: Margaret J. Kartomi, Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary of Music, Vol, 2 Book Go to O page 379 ;

Washint

Name: Washint.
Type: Aerophones > Open-Ended > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Ethiopia.
Region: Africa.

Description: The washint is an end-blown flute originally played in Ethiopia. It is played by the Azmari’s who are bards, analogous to Griots or Bards. They would pass their oral history through melody accompanied on the washint as well as the krar [plucked lyre], the masenqo [bowed instrument].

Construction: The washint can be constructed using wood, bamboo, or other cane. Varieties exists in different lengths and relative finger-hole placement. Also a performer might use several different flutes over the course of a performance to accommodate different song types. It generally has four finger-holes, which allows the player to create a pentatonic scale.

Citations: Bibliography: Nidel, Richard 2005 – World Music: The Basics. Routlidge Taylor & Francis Group, NY. Websites; Washint Melody [youtube video] ;

Xun

Name: Xun.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Vessel.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.221.42
Bayin: 土 Clay.
Specimen: 1 in collection.
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.
Acquisition Source: Randy Raine-Reusch @ China.

Description: The Xun [simplified Chinese: 埙; traditional Chinese: 塤; pinyin: xūn; Cantonese= hyun1] is a vessel flute of the Han Chinese, the main ethnic group of China. It is one of the oldest instruments of china having approximately 7000 years of history. Most xun are usually egg shaped, with a flattened bottom. In the bayin classification system this instrument would be classified as a clay 土 as the pain classifies the instruments based on the materials the musical instruments are made of.

Construction: The xun is an egg-shaped aerophone, containing at least three finger holes in front and two thumb holes in back often a total of five or seven finger holes. It has a blowing hole on top and can have up to ten smaller finger holes, one for each finger. Although similar to an ocarina there is a clear fundamental difference. The xun lacks a fipple mouth piece, unlike other Chinese flute-like instruments such as the Wudu and Taodi. The xun can come in a variety of sizes.

Citations: Bibliography: Jin, Jie 2011 – Chinese Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521186919 ; Thrasher, Alan 2000 – Chinese Musical Instruments. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 16. ISBN 0-19-590777-9 ; Websites: Randy Raine-Reusch @ [Xun Article] asza.com ;

Sipsi

Name: Sipsi.
Type: Aerophones > Reeds > Single.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 422.211.2
Country: Turkey.
Region: Aegean, Asia Minor & Mediterranean.

Description: The sipsi [pronounced in Turkish / in IPA: sipˈsi] is a Turkish woodwind instrument. It is a clarinet-like, single-reed instrument used mainly in folk music. The word “sipsi” is possibly onomatopoeic. The sipsi is one of many reed instruments in Turkey used to play lead melodies in instrumental folk music. It is generally played in the Western part in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Most folk tunes played in this area with the sipsi are in 9/8 time signature.

Definition: The Turkish Language Society lists “sipsi” as 1. Ağaç dallarından yapılan düdük – a whistle or flute made from the branch of a tree. 2. Gemici düdüğü, Sailor’s while or pipe 3. Zurnanın dudaklara gelen kamış bölümü. The reed section that fits into the opening “lips” of a zurna.

Playing Technique: Musicians who perform on the sipsi use circular breathing as one would see in parallel other similar reed instruments.

Construction: The sipsi can be made of bone, wood, or reed, though the reed variant is most common. Its size varies from region to region, but it generally contains five finger holes in the front, and one finger hole in the back.

Citations: Bibliography: Akdeniz, Tayyar “Sipsi- Turkish Music Instruments- Folk Tours”. Folk Tours. Folk Tours LLC. Retrieved 2011-09-28 ; Reinhard, Kurt; Martin Stokes ; “Turkey: II Folk Music, 4 Instrumental Music”. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Retrieved 2011-09-29 ;