Tag Archives: Frame



Name: Arbana.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Frame.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.311
Diameter: 25 cm.
Depth: 5.5 cm.
Area: Kerala.
Country: India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The arbana is a frame drum played by the Māppila [Muslims] Kerala, South India.

Construction: A frame made of wood from the jackwood tree is created. In which there are five sets of little symbols affixed each consisting of two or four iron or brass discs]. The diameter of the drum is measured to 25 cm.

The drum is reinforced by iron flanges. The membrane or head is made of stretched goat skin with out being tightened. Before the drum is  used, the head is stretched by inserting a piece of vine in the space between the skin and frame.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Oxfordmusiconline.com / Arbana / Pribislav Pitoëff ;


Name: Allun.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Frame.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.311
Diameter: 40 cm > 75 cm.
Depth: 8 cm to 15 cm.
Area: High Atlas.
Country: Morocco.
Region: North Africa.

Description: The Allen is a frame drum that is played by the Berber people, particularly of Morocco in the High Atlas region. Its width varies from 40 cm to 75 cm. The depth of the Allun is 8 cm to 15 cm. Although it is similar to the bendir in appearance, the allun usually has no snares.

Citations: Bibliography: B. Lortat-Jacob: Musique et fêtes au Haut-Atlas [Paris, 1980] ; Websites:


Name: Adufé.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Frame.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.311
Area: Iberian Peninsula.
Country: Portugal.
Region: West Europe, Latin America and North Africa.

Description: The adufé is a hand beaten frame drum of Muslim origin, it is played in Iberia, Latin America and in North Africa. In Spain and Portugal it is played primarily by women often to accompany their singing. In Portugal it is prominently used with other instruments to accompany the charamba, a circle-dance performed by couples, and various Christian processions. In Guatemala string ensembles [zarabandas] incorporate adufe that have an interior rattle or bell.

Construction: Typically, a wooden frame about 30 to 45 cm square and 6 to 9 cm deep is covered with sheep or goat skin on one or both sides. Triangular and hexagonal shapes are occasionally found nowadays. The heads are normally tacked on and the tacks covered by ribbon, or in Morocco a single skin can be stitched over the frame. Rattling elements are sometimes enclosed.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Oxfordmusiconline.com / Adufe article by John M. Shechter ;


Name: Kanjira.
Type: Membranophones > Drums > Frames.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 211.311
Country: India.
Region: South Asia.

Description: The Kanjira, Kanjira, Khanjiri or Ganjira is a frame drum that is of the tambourine family. It has originally been used to play folk and bhajan music for many centuries. It was modified into a frame drum with a single pair of jingles by Manpoondia Pillai.

In the 1880s, who is credited with introducing the instrument to the classical stage. It is primarily used  in concerts of Carnatic or South Indian Classical Music as a supporting instrument to the mrdangam.

Citations: Bibliography: Prema Kasturi: Chithra Madhavan [2007]; South India heritage: an introduction, by East West Books [Madras] p. 593 ISBN: 978-81-88661-64-0 Websites: