Name: Bajo Sexto.
Type: Lute > Chordophones.
Tuning: E A D G C F
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Region: Latin America.
Description: Bajo sexto [in Spanish: “sixth bass”] is a Mexican string instrument with 12 strings in 6 double courses [in pairs of 2]. The origins of this instrument are some what unclear. As most of the history is oral transmitted by those who play and build the instruments.
History: In the 17th and 18th centuries, Mexican artisans built several types of instruments with double strings in three, four, fifths, sixth, seventh and eight courses, influenced by their Spanish ancestors. Descendants of these instruments are bandolon, guitarra séptima, quinta huapanguera, jarana jarocha, concheros string instruments, and guitarra chamula, among others. The manufacture of bajo quinto and sexto reached a peak in quality and popularity in the 19th century in central and southern Mexico, in the states of Guerrero, Michoacán, Morelos, Puebla, Oaxaca, and Tlaxcala.
Playing Technique: A plectrum is used often as the strings are quite thick on the bajo-sexto.
Construction: The bajo-sexto is a member of the guitar family. Physically this instrument appears to be quite similar to the 12-string guitar. There are some slight differences. The Body is usually a bit deeper. The neck is shorter, joining the body at the 12th fret. Modern 12-string guitars usually join at the 14th fret being a bass instrument the strings are thicker.
Citations: Avetardo, J. T., ed; Puro Conjunto: An Album in words and Pictures; Center for Mexican American Studies, The University of Texas; Austin, Texas: 2001. 470p. ISBN 0-292-78174-1 Bajos de espiga. Diccionario de la Música Española e Hispanoamericana. Sociedad General de Autores y Editores. Madrid 2002. ISBN 978-84-8048-303-2 Hernandez, Ramon; An Informal History of the Bajo Sexto; in Aventardo, Ch. 12, pp. 127–130. The Texas-Mexican Conjunto Bajo sexto/quinto