Membranophones

Struck drums are instruments which have a struck membrane. This includes most types of drums, such as the timpani, timbale, or kettle drum, and the snare drum.

211 Directly struck membranophones:

Instruments in which the membrane is struck directly, such as through bare hands, beaters or keyboards.

211.1 Instruments in which the body of the drum is dish- or bowl-shaped [kettle drums].

211.11 Single instruments

211.12 Sets of instruments

211.2 Instruments in which the body is tubular [tubular drums].

211.21 Instruments in which the body has the same diameter at the middle and the end [cylindrical drums].

211.211 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.211.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.211.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.212 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.212.1 Single instruments

211.212.2 Sets of instruments

211.213 Mixed sets of cylindrical drums

211.22 Instruments in which the body is barrel-shaped [barrel drums].

211.221 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.221.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open.

211.221.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed.

211.222 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

211.222.1 Single instruments.

211.222.2 Sets of instruments.

211.223 Mixed sets of barrel drums [tabla tarang, ].

211.23 Instruments in which the body is hourglass-shaped.

211.231 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.231.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open.

211.231.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.232 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.232.1 Single instruments

211.232.2 Sets of instruments

211.223 Mixed sets of hourglass drums

211.24 Instruments in which the body is conical-shaped (conical drums)

211.241 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.241.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.241.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.242 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.242.1 Single instruments

211.242.2 Sets of instruments

211.243 Mixed sets of single-conical drums

211.244 Instruments in which the body is double-conical.

211.244.1 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.244.11 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open.

211.244.12 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed.

211.244.2 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

211.244.21 Single instruments.

211.244.22 Sets of instruments.

211.245 Mixed sets of double-conical drums.

211.246 Mixed sets of conical drums.

211.25 Instruments in which the body is goblet-shaped [goblet drums] Dumbek, Tonbak, Dabakan.

211.251 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.251.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open.

211.251.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed.

211.252 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

211.252.1 Single instruments.

211.252.2 Sets of instruments.

211.253 Mixed sets of goblet drums.

211.26 Mixed sets of tubular drums.

211.3 Instruments in which the body depth is not greater than the radius of the membrane [frame drums].

211.31 Instruments which do not have a handle.

211.311 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.312 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

211.32 Instruments which have a handle.

211.321 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.322 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

212 Shaken membranophones ~ Instruments which are shaken, the membrane being vibrated by objects inside the drum [rattle drums].

22 Plucked membranophones.

Instruments with a string attached to the membrane, so that when the string is plucked, the membrane vibrates [plucked drums] Ektara, Gopichand.

Some commentators believe that instruments in this class ought instead to be regarded as chordophones [see below].

23 Friction membranophones ~ Instruments in which the membrane vibrates as a result of friction. These are drums which are rubbed, rather than being struck.

231 Friction drums with stick ~ Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated from a stick that is rubbed or used to rub the membrane.

231.1 Instruments in which the stick is inserted in a hole in the membrane.

231.11 Instruments in which the stick can not be moved and is subject to rubbing, causing friction on the membrane.

231.12 Instruments in which the stick is semi-movable, and can be used to rub the membrane.

231.13 Instruments in which the stick is freely movable, and is used to rub the membrane.

231.2 Instruments in which the stick is tied upright to the membrane
Friction drum with cord

232 Instruments in which a cord, attached to the membrane, is rubbed.

232.1 Instruments in which the drum is held stationary while playing.

232.11 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

232.12 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

232.2 Instruments in which the drum is twirled by a cord, which rubs in a notch on the stick held by the player.

233 Hand friction drums

Instruments in which the membrane is rubbed by hand.

24 Singing membranes [kazoos] ~ This group includes kazoos, instruments which do not produce sound of their own, but modify other sounds by way of a vibrating membrane.

241 Free kazoos ~ Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated by an unbroken column of wind, without a chamber.

242 Tube or vessel-kazoos ~ Instruments in which the membrane is placed in a box, tube or other container

25 Unclassified membranophones.

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