Name: Dili Kaval.
Type: Aerophones > Tubular > Ducts > Flutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.211.12
Description: The dilli kaval [in Azeri: Tütək] is a traditional fipple flute from Turkey and Azerbaijan. They are typically made of plum, ebony, or apricot wood. They have a seven holes on the front and a thumb hole on the back;
Playing Techniques: The lowest hole on the front is seldom played, if ever covered while playing. Similar to an penny whistle, the register can be controlled by the force of breath. The word “dilli” is Turkish for “tongued” and alludes to the fact that this flute has a duct or “fipple” rather than being rim-blown like a conventional kaval.
The lyre [in Greek: λύρα, lýra] is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. In organology, lyres are defined as “yoke lutes”, being lutes in which the strings are attached to a yoke that lies in the same plane as the sound-table and consists of two arms and a cross-bar.
In Ancient Greece, recitations of lyric poetry were accompanied by lyre playing. The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada [a Minoan settlement in Crete]. The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete [c. 1400 BC].
The lyre of classical antiquity was ordinarily played by being strummed with a plectrum [pick], like a guitar or a zither, rather than being plucked with the fingers as with a harp. The fingers of the free hand silenced the unwanted strings in the chord. Later instruments, also called lyres, were played with a bow in Europe and parts of the Middle East, namely the Byzantine lyra and its descendants.
Etymology: The earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning lyrists and written in the Linear B script. In classical Greek, the word lyre could either refer specifically to an amateur instrument, which is a smaller version of the professional cithara and eastern-Aegean barbiton, or lyre can refer generally to all three instruments as a family.
The English word comes via Latin from the Greek. The term is also used metaphorically to refer to the work or skill of a poet, as in Shelley’s “Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is” or Byron’s “I wish to tune my quivering lyre, / To deeds of fame, and notes of fire”.