Mejoranera

Name: Mejoranera.
Types: Chordophones > Lutes > Guitar > Guitarillos.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.322.5
Country: Panama.
Region: Central America.

Description: The origin of the Mejoranera is unclear and there are different theories. The likely introduction came with the sailors who introduced a form of tap dance called the “zapateo”, in Panama the same dance is also called the “mejorana” dance, which includes this instrument. This instrument is a direct descendant of the Baroque guitar, it does bare similar in shape and depth to the Puerto Rican bordonua.

It first appeared at the town of La Mesa in Veraguas, but is now popular in all central provinces. Veraguas, Herrera and Los Santos, and the most representative musical instrument of this country.

Tunings: There are several alternate tunings in use they are identified as calls “by 25” or “by 6” for example. Played with a plectrum or by hand for picking or strumming. It is found and widely used in the region of the central provinces of the Isthmus of Panama.

Mejoranera Tunings
Name Tunings
By 25 E / B / A / a’ / D
By 6 E / B / G / g’ / D

Construction: Although of smaller construction the Mejoranera is similar appearance to the guitar. The wood used to make the body, bracing were cedar, hawthorn cedar [G. globosum], chira, beans, Jamaican and espavé. Having only five single strings, and a short neck having up to only six frets. The frets were set in a chromatic manner.

The pegs and the flat pegbox are made of wood or and traditionally, the instrument has no metal parts. The bridge is quite pronounced and has two feet that are attached to the harmony table. It carries a rope, tied through a pair of holes in the body, to be used as a strap around the neck of the performer.

Citations: Bibliography: Rey, A.; Schaeffer, M. 1945 “Boletín del Instituto de Investigaciones Folklóricas”. California Folklore Quarterly. 4 [4]: Websites:

Bordonua

Name: Bordonua.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Guitarillos.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 321.322.6
Tunings: A / D / F# / B / E
Country: Puerto Rico.
Region: Caribbean, Latin America.

Description: The Bordonua [in Spanish: Bordonúa] is a large, deep bodied lute. Bordonua usually are 15 cm or 6 inches in depth. Bordonua are native to Puerto Rico. They are made using several different shapes and sizes.

Citations: Bibliography: Stanley Sadie ~ New Grove Dictionary Of Musical Instruments – Book A to F Vol. 1 Page 252 ;

Larchemi

Name: Larchemi.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Panflutes.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Georgia.
Region: Caucasus.

Description: The larchemi [in Georgian: ლარჭემი] or soinari [in Georgian: სოინარი] is an ancient Georgian musical instrument of the panpipe family. It is known as “larchemi” in Samegrelo and “soinari” in Guria, but there is no difference in the instrument; those in Guria may be smaller. The larchemi was in the past found also in Abkhazia, Imereti and Lazeti [where it was called ostvinoni]. By 1958, when it was studied by Kakhi Rosebashvili, it had largely disappeared.

The larchemi consists of a row of six reed pipes. Two bass pipes in the middle are tuned a second apart; the other pipes are tuned in thirds from them. The instrument can be played by two performers, who take three pipes each.

Citations: Bibliography: Larchemi-Soinari. Open Museum: State Museum of Georgian Folk Songs and Musical Instruments ~ Nina Shvelidze 2006 ; In: Rusudan Turtsumia, Joseph Jordania [eds.]: Second International Symposium on Traditional Polyphony. Tiflis: International Research Center for Traditional Polyphony of Tbilisi State Conservatoire. p. 407–412 ;

Percussion

A percussion or concussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped or struck by a beater. This includes attached or enclosed beaters or rattles that are struck by hand or by another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice.

The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine. However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can also be applied to the human body, as in body percussion.

On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not normally part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone [which do not have piano keyboards] are included.

Percussion instruments are most commonly divided into two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch to which xylophones [balafon, marimba] fall under and unpitched percussion instruments like the udu, wood block and clave, which produce notes or sounds without an identifiable pitch.

There are two main categories of directly struck idiophones, concussion idiophones [111.1] and percussion idiophones [111.2].

Concussion idiophones or clappers [111.1]

Main article: List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number
Two or more complementary sonorous parts are struck against each other.

Percussion idiophones [111.2]

The instrument is struck either with a non-sonorous object hand, stick, striker or against a non-sonorous object – human body, the ground.

111.11 Concussion sticks or stick clappers, nearly equal thickness and width.

111.12 Concussion plaques or plaque clappers, flat.

Clap-sticks
Claves
Clapper
Guban
Paiban
Pak
Slapstick

111.13 Concussion troughs or trough clappers [shallow].

Devil chase

111.14 Concussion vessels or vessel clappers [deep].

Spoons

111.141 Castanets – Natural and hollowed-out vessel clappers.

Castanets

Chap
Ching
Clash Cymbals
Krap

111.142 Cymbals – Vessel clappers with manufactured rim.

Percussion idiophones [111.2]

The instrument is struck either with a non-sonorous object such as a hand, stick, striker or against a non-sonorous object or human body, the ground.

111.21 Percussion sticks.

111.211 Individual percussion sticks.

Dhantal
Triangle
111.212 Sets of percussion sticks in a range of different pitches combined into one instrument. – All xylophones, as long as their sounding components are not in two different planes.

Balafon
Gandingan a kayo
Glasschord
Glass marimba
Kulintang a kayo
Luntang or kwintangan kayo
Marimba
Marimbaphone [also bowed]
Xylophone
Xylorimba

111.22 Percussion plaques.

111.221 Individual percussion plaques.

111.222 Sets of percussion plaques – Examples are the Lithophone and also most Metallophones.

Crotales
Lithophone
Celesta
Fangxiang
Gangsa
Gendèr
Glockenspiel
Kulintang a tiniok, kulintang a putao, or sarunay
Metallophone
Ranat ek lek
Ranat thum lek
Toy piano
Ugal
Vibraphone
111.23 Percussion tubes.

111.231 Individual percussion tubes.

Agung a tamlang
Alimba
Huari
Huiringua
Kagul
Krin or Kolokolos
Mondo
Mukoko
Slit drum
Takuapu
Teponaztli
Tubular Wood block
111.232 Sets of percussion tubes.

Tubular bells or chimes
111.24 Percussion vessels.

Boungu
Chuk
Cymbals
Crash cymbal
Hank drum
Hi-hat cymbal
Hang
Kagul or tagutok
Ride cymbal
Slit drums:
Slit gong
Splash cymbal
Steel-pan or steel drum
Udu [also an aerophone]
Wood block
111.241 Gongs – The vibration is strongest near the vertex.

111.241.1 Individual gongs.

Babendil
111.241.2 Sets of gongs.

Agung or agong
Bock-a-da-bock
Gandingan
Kulintang or kolintang
111.242 Bells – The vibration is weakest near the vertex.

Bell tree
111.242.1 Individual bells

111.242.11 Resting bells whose opening faces upward.

Cowbell
111.242.12 Hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.121 Hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.122 Hanging bells with internal strikers.

Bell
111.242.2 Sets of bells or chimes.

111.242.11 Sets of resting bells whose opening faces upward.

111.242.12 Sets of hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.121 Sets of hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.122 Sets of hanging bells with internal strikers.

Indirectly struck [112] Indirectly stuck idiophones produce sound resulting from an indirect action of the performer as opposed to the directly struck idiophones.[1] The player himself does not go through the movement of striking; percussion results indirectly through some other movement by the player. This category is divided in two main sub-categories: shaken idiophones and scraped idiophones.

Shaken idiophones or rattles [112.1] Further information: Rattle [percussion instrument]
The player makes a shaking motion

112.11 Suspension rattles – Perforated idiophones are mounted together, and shaken to strike against each other.

112.111 Strung rattles – Rattling objects are strung in rows on a cord.

112.112 Stick rattles – Rattling objects are strung on a bar or ring.

112.12 Frame rattles – Rattling objects are attached to a carrier against which they strike.

112.121 Pendant rattles.

112.122 Sliding rattles.

112.13 Vessel rattles – Rattling objects enclosed in a vessel strike against each other or against the walls of the vessel, or usually against both.

Metallophones

A metallophone is any musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound, usually with a mallet. Metallophones have been used in music in Asia for thousands of years. There are several different types used in Balinese and Javanese gamelan ensembles, including the gendér, gangsa and saron. These instruments have a single row of bars, tuned to the distinctive pelog or slendro scales, or a subset of them. The Western glockenspiel and vibraphone are also metallophones as they have two rows of bars, in an imitation of the piano keyboard, and are tuned to the chromatic scale. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification scheme they are categorized as a sub-category of “percussion plaques” 111.22 Percussion plaques.

Membranophones

1 Membranophones [2]
1.1 Struck [21]
1.1.1 Directly Struck [211]
1.1.2 Shaken [212]
1.2 Plucked [22]
1.3 Friction [23]
1.3.1 Friction Drums with stick [231]
1.3.2 Friction drum with cord [232]
1.3.3 Hand friction drums [233]
1.4 Singing membranes [kazoos] [24]
1.4.1 Free kazoos [241]
1.4.2 Tube or vessel kazoos [242]
1.5 Unclassified membranophones [25]

Classification by Shape

Cylindrical
Conical
Barrel
Hourglass
Goblet
Footed
Long
Kettle
Frame
Friction
Mirlitons

21 Struck membranophones

Struck drums – instruments which have a struck membrane. This includes most types of drum, such as the timpani and snare drum.

211 Directly struck membranophones
Instruments in which the membrane is struck directly, such as through bare hands, beaters or keyboards

211.1 Kettle Drums ~ Instruments in which the body of the drum is dish- or bowl-shaped

211.11 Single instruments ; Tamak, Timpani

211.12 Sets of instruments

211.2 Kettle Drums [Tubular] includes the tabla.

211.21 Cylindrical Drums ~ Instruments in which the body has the same diameter at the middle and end.

211.211 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.211.1~ O Octoban ~ Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.211.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.212 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.212.1 Single instruments

Bass drum
Dunun
Snare drum
Tom-tom

211.212.2 Sets of instruments

211.22 Barrel Drums ~ Instruments in which the body is barrel-shaped.

211.221 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.221.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

Conga

211.221.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.222 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.222.1 Single instruments

Taiko – this term refers to any of the various Japanese drums.
> Byō-uchi-daiko
>> Shime-daiko
>>> Okedō-daiko
>>>> Gagakki
>>>>> N-Odaiko – type of Taiko

211.222.2 Sets of instruments

211.23 Instruments in which the body is double-conical

211.231 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.231.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.231.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.232 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.232.1 Single instruments

211.232.2 Sets of instruments

211.24 Instruments in which the body is hourglass-shaped

211.241 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.241.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open

211.241.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.242 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.242.1 Single instruments

211.242.2 Sets of instruments

211.25 Instruments in which the body is conical-shaped, conical drums.

211.251 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.251.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open ~ Bongo drum

211.251.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed

211.252 Instruments which have two usable membranes

211.252.1 Single instruments

211.252.2 Sets of instruments

211.26 Instruments in which the body is goblet-shaped [goblet drums].

211.261 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

211.261.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open ~ Djembe

211.261.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed ~ Dabakan

211.262 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

211.262.1 Single instruments.

211.262.2 Sets of instruments.

211.3 Frame Drums ~ Instruments in which the body depth is not greater than the radius of the membrane. Tambourine [the additional jingles also make this an idiophone].

211.31 Instruments which do not have a handle.

211.311 Instruments which have only one usable membrane.

211.312 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

211.32 Instruments which have a handle.

211.321 Instruments which have only one usable membrane ~ Bodhrán, Doire.

211.322 Instruments which have two usable membranes.

212 Shaken membranophones ~ Instruments which are shaken, the membrane being vibrated by objects inside the drum [rattle drums]

22 Plucked membranophones ~ Instruments with a string attached to the membrane, so that when the string is plucked, the membrane vibrates [plucked drums] Some commentators believe that instruments in this class ought instead to be regarded as chordophones [see below].

23 Friction membranophones ~ Instruments in which the membrane vibrates as a result of friction. These are drums which are rubbed, rather than being struck.

231 Friction drums with stick ~ Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated from a stick that is rubbed or used to rub the membrane

231.1 Instruments in which the stick is inserted in a hole in the membrane

231.11 Instruments in which the stick can not be moved and is subject to rubbing, causing friction on the membrane

Cuíca
Rommelpot
231.12 Instruments in which the stick is semi-movable, and can be used to rub the membrane

231.13 Instruments in which the stick is freely movable, and is used to rub the membrane

231.2 Instruments in which the stick is tied upright to the membrane

232 Friction drum with cord ~ Instruments in which a cord, attached to the membrane, is rubbed

232.1 Instruments in which the drum is held stationary while playing

232.11 Instruments which have only one usable membrane

232.12 Instruments which have two usable membranes

232.2 Instruments in which the drum is twirled by a cord, which rubs in a notch on the stick held by the player

233 Hand friction drums
Instruments in which the membrane is rubbed by hand

24 Singing membranes [kazoos] ~ This group includes kazoos, instruments which do not produce sound of their own, but modify other sounds by way of a vibrating membrane.

241 Free kazoos ~ Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated by an unbroken column of wind, without a chamber

242 Tube or vessel kazoos ~ Instruments in which the membrane is placed in a box, tube or other container

Kazoos
Eunuch flute

Idiophones

An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates the sound primarily by the instrument as a whole. Vibrating without the use of strings or membranes. The early classification of Victor-Charles Mahillon called this group of instruments autophones.

Most percussion instruments that are not drums are idiophones. Hornbostel-Sachs classifies idiophones into four main sub-categories. The first division is the struck idiophones [sometimes called concussion idiophones].

This includes most of the non-drum percussion instruments familiar in the West. They include all idiophones made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand like the wood block, singing bowl, steel tongue drum, triangle or marimba or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion like maracas or the flexatone. Various types of bells fall into both categories.

111. Directly
111.1. Concussion
111.2. Percussion
112. Indirectly
112.1. Shaken / rattle
112.2. Scraped / rasp

12. Plucked [Mbira]
121. Frame
121.1. Clack
121.2. Guimbarde [Jaw-Harps]

122.
122.1 Comb
122.2. Cut out

13. Friction
131. Stick Nail violin
132. Plaque Musical saw Daxophone
133. Vessel Glass harmonica
14. Blown
141. Stick
142. Plaque

122.
122.1 Comb
122.2. Cut out

Concert Zither

Name: Concert Zither.
Type: Chordophones > Zither > Box > Fretted.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 314.122.4
Country: Germany.
Region: Europe.

Description: The concert zither or [in German: Konzertzither] its variant the Alpine zither both using a fretted fingerboard and the chord zither more recently described as a fretless zither or “guitar zither”.

The Concert and Alpine zithers are traditionally found in the Alpines and mainly with in Central Europe including the following Slovenia, North Western Croatia, Austria, Hungary, France the southern regions of Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.

Emigration from these areas during the 19th century introduced the concert and Alpine zither to North and South America. Chord zithers similar to the instrument in the photograph also became popular in North America during the late 19th and early 20th century.

Citations:

Mandolin Harp

Name: Mandolin Harp.
Type: Chordophones > Zithers > Box > Fretless.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 314.122.4
Inventor: Friederich Menzenhauer [1858-1937].
Patent Date: May 29, 1894
Country: Germany, United States.
Region: Western Europe & North America.

Description: A mandolin harp is a fretless box zither. This musical instrument consists of a sound box with two sets of unstopped strings. It has a double strings tuned in unison courses producing a mandolin-like sound then other zithers. As it is a fretless zither, there are no frets. Making it such that players can only play one note on each string.

Invention: The mandolin harp was first patented by Friedrich Menzenhauer on May 29, 1894 and came into use in the late 19th century. It was then mass produced in the United States and Germany. Later, Oscar Schmidt Company and others began mass producing the mandolin harp.

The Phonoharp Company used “Columbia Zither” as both a brand name and a generic name for the instrument as seen in the Sears 1902 Catalog. A unique feature called a gizmo, contained small buttons in a panel over the strings. This was present on many mandolin harps however, some mandolin harps may not have one.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: This Just In! Mandolin Harp / Historical Museum ;

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