Name: Kangling.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 432.121.14
Country: Tibet.
Region: China, Far East Asia.

Description: Kangling [in Tibetan: རྐང་གླིང་།, Wylie: rkang-gling], literally translated as “leg” [kang] “flute” [ling], is the Tibetan name for a trumpet or horn made out of a human femur, used in Tibetan Buddhism for various chöd rituals as well as funerals performed by a chöpa.

Religious Use: The kangling should only be used in chöd rituals performed outdoors with the chöd damaru and bell. In Tantric chöd practice, the practitioner, motivated by compassion, plays the kangling as a gesture of fearlessness, to summon hungry spirits and demons so that she or he may satisfy their hunger and thereby relieve their sufferings.

It is also played as a way of “cutting off of the ego”. A minor figure from Katok Monastery, the First Chonyi Gyatso, Chopa Lugu [17th – mid-18th century], is remembered for his “nightly bellowing of bone-trumpet [kangling] and shouting of phet” on pilgrimage, much to the irritation of the business traveler who accompanied him. Chopa Lugu became renowned as “The Chod Yogi Who Split a Cliff in China [rgya nag brag bcad gcod pa].

Citations: Bibliography: New Grove Dictionary of Music by Stanley Sadie page 252 Rkang-gling [Tibetan trumpet] ; Vandor: Bouddhisme Tibétan, Paris, 1976. O.C. Handa 2005. Buddhist Monasteries of Himachal; Indus Publishing Company. p. 320. ISBN 81-7387-170-1 ; Andrea Loseries-Leick 2008; Tibetan Mahayoga Tantra: An Ethno Historical Study of Skulls, Bones and Relics. B.R. Pub. Corp. p. 225. Chhosphel, Samten [December 2011]; “The First Chonyi Gyatso, Chopa Lugu”. The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-10-08 ;

Vladimirskiy Rozhok

Name: Vladimirskiy Rozhok.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 423.121.12
Country: Russian Federation.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The Vladimirskiy rozhok [in Russian: Владимирский Рожок] also called Vladimir horn, is an ancient Russian wooden trumpet, a relative of the cornett, which has remained in continuous use until the present day. The rozhok is known by a variety of names shepherd’s, Russian, or song rozhok.

History: The origins of the instrument date to before AD 1600. The tradition of playing the rozhok in an ensemble probably dates to a much earlier time. It is possible that the name rozhok was used for the instrument later, and that in the earliest written sources it was simply called a pipe. 

At the end of the 19th century, the name Vladimir was added to this instrument’s name, due to the success of a chorus of rozhok players under the leadership of Nikolai Vasilyevich Kondratyev from the Vladimir region.

Varieties: The sound of a rozhok is strong, but mellow, having a range of about an octave, or a little more. There are several types of rozhoks: the shortest one, having the highest sound is called vizgunok [squeaker], typically in F# or G.

The longest and thus the lowest one is called bas [bass] in F# or G an octave below, while a mid-size instrument is called a polubasok [half-bass] typically in C. It is polubasok instruments that are most frequently used for solo playing. Rozhok ensembles usually consist of just vizgunok and bas instruments in the ratio 2:1 twice as many high-pitched horns.

Construction: A rozhok is a conical straight tube with the six playing holes: five on top and one underneath. The total length of a rozhok ranges from 320 to 830 mm [13″ to 33″]. A mouthpiece is cut in the form of a small cup, and the lower end of the tube is shaped like a conical bell.

A rozhok is usually made of birch, maple, or juniper. Musicians say that rozhoks of juniper have the best sound. In the past they were made in the same manner as a shepherd’s rozhok, in which two halves are fastened together with birch bark; today they are turned. As of 2015, rozhok ensembles exist in Moscow, Vladimir and Nerekhta. In addition, rozhoks can sometimes be heard in Russian folk orchestra concerts.



Name: Bas.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 423.121.12
Country: Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Region: South East Asia.

Description: The bas is a bamboo trumpet that is played by the Toraja people who reside in central Sulawesi. In Ambon, where the ensemble is said to have originated, the bas is called a pompang

Construction: The bas about 20 cm in length and 1 cm wide. It is attached just above the node at the bottom to a horizontal tube, about 9 cm by 1 cm. This in turn is attached to ached to another vertical tube, about 36 cm by 3 cm, closed by a node at the bottom.

The measurements provided are for the smallest bas played in the ensemble. The largest bas is about 135 cm in. Length. Producing a single low-pitched tone. Various sizes of bas provide the main harmonic element in the Bas-suling ensemble.

Citations: Bibliography: Margret J. Kartomi ~ Stanley Sadie – New Grove Dictionary of Music, Book A to F, page 166 : Pompang bas instrumentalia toraja [Youtube Video] :


Name: Bucium.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 423.121.12
Country: Romania & Moldavia.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The bucium [in Romanian pronunciation: ˈbut͡ʃjum] also called trâmbiţă or tulnic, is a type of alphorn used by mountain dwellers and by shepherds in Romania and Moldova. The word is derived from Latin bucinum, originally meaning “curved horn”, an instrument used by the Romans. The word is a cognate with English “bugle”.

Etymology: It is mostly used by shepherds for signalling and communication in the forested mountains, as well as for guiding sheep and dogs. Trâmbiţa [from the old Germanic trumba, “to trumpet”] produces sounds altogether different from those of the alphorn. The name trembita it is also used by the Ukrainian Hutsuls and the Polish Gorals.

Construction: The tube is made from lime-tree bark, wood, or even [partially] from metal.



Name: Trembita.
Type: Aerophones > Trumpets.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 423.121.12
Country: Ukraine.
Region: Eastern Europe.

Description: The trembita whose name originates from the old germanic “trumba”, “to trumpet”. It is an alpine horn that is made of wood. It is common among Ukrainian highlanders Hutsuls who used to live in western Ukraine, eastern Poland, Slovakia and northern Romania. In southern Poland it’s called trombita, bazuna in the North and ligawka in central Poland.

Used primarily by mountain dwellers known as Hutsuls and Gorals in the Carpathian Mountains, it was used as a signalling device to announce deaths, funerals, weddings. It is also used by shepherds for signalling and communication in the forested mountains and for guiding sheep and dogs.

Construction: The tube is made from a long straight piece of pine or spruce, preferably one that has been struck by lightning. Which is split in two in order to carve out the core. The halves are once again joined together and then wrapped in birch bark or osier rings.

Citations: Bibliography: Humeniuk, A Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty Kiev, Naukova dumka 1967 ; Mizynec, Victor ; Folk instruments of Ukraine. Doncaster 1987 Bayda Books ISBN 0-908480-19-9 OCLC 19355447 ; Cherkasky, Leonid Musiiovych 2003 ; Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty, Kiev, Tekhnika. ISBN 966-575-111-5. OCLC 56112444 ;


The player’s vibrating lips set the air in motion.

423.1 Natural trumpets – There are no means of changing the pitch apart from the player’s lips. Examples include the bugle, didgeridoo, natural horn, and the shofar.

423.11 Conches – A conch shell serves as trumpet.

423.111 End-blown.

423.111.1 Without mouthpiece.

423.111.2 With mouthpiece.

423.112 Side-blown.

423.12 Tubular trumpets.

423.121 End-blown trumpets – The mouth-hole faces the axis of the trumpet.

423.121.1 End-blown straight trumpets – The tube is neither curved nor folded.

423.121.11 Without mouthpiece.

423.121.12 With mouthpiece.

423.121.2 End-blown horns – The tube is curved or folded.

423.121.21 Without mouthpiece.

423.121.22 With mouthpiece.

423.122 Side blown trumpets.

423.2 Chromatic trumpets – The pitch of the instrument can be altered mechanically

423.21 Keyed trumpets – Ophicleide.

423.22 Slide trumpets – Trombone.

423.23 Valved trumpets – French horn, euphonium, baritone horn, trumpet, and tuba.

423.231 Conical bore

423.232 Semi-conical bore

423.233 Cylindrical bore

43 Unclassified aerophones


A percussion or concussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped or struck by a beater. This includes attached or enclosed beaters or rattles that are struck by hand or by another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice.

The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine. However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can also be applied to the human body, as in body percussion.

On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not normally part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone [which do not have piano keyboards] are included.

Percussion instruments are most commonly divided into two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch to which xylophones [balafon, marimba] fall under and unpitched percussion instruments like the udu, wood block and clave, which produce notes or sounds without an identifiable pitch.

There are two main categories of directly struck idiophones, concussion idiophones [111.1] and percussion idiophones [111.2].

Concussion idiophones or clappers [111.1]

Main article: List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number
Two or more complementary sonorous parts are struck against each other.

Percussion idiophones [111.2]

The instrument is struck either with a non-sonorous object hand, stick, striker or against a non-sonorous object – human body, the ground.

111.11 Concussion sticks or stick clappers, nearly equal thickness and width.

111.12 Concussion plaques or plaque clappers, flat.


111.13 Concussion troughs or trough clappers [shallow].

Devil chase

111.14 Concussion vessels or vessel clappers [deep].


111.141 Castanets – Natural and hollowed-out vessel clappers.


Clash Cymbals

111.142 Cymbals – Vessel clappers with manufactured rim.

Percussion idiophones [111.2]

The instrument is struck either with a non-sonorous object such as a hand, stick, striker or against a non-sonorous object or human body, the ground.

111.21 Percussion sticks.

111.211 Individual percussion sticks.

111.212 Sets of percussion sticks in a range of different pitches combined into one instrument. – All xylophones, as long as their sounding components are not in two different planes.

Gandingan a kayo
Glass marimba
Kulintang a kayo
Luntang or kwintangan kayo
Marimbaphone [also bowed]

111.22 Percussion plaques.

111.221 Individual percussion plaques.

111.222 Sets of percussion plaques – Examples are the Lithophone and also most Metallophones.

Kulintang a tiniok, kulintang a putao, or sarunay
Ranat ek lek
Ranat thum lek
Toy piano
111.23 Percussion tubes.

111.231 Individual percussion tubes.

Agung a tamlang
Krin or Kolokolos
Slit drum
Tubular Wood block
111.232 Sets of percussion tubes.

Tubular bells or chimes
111.24 Percussion vessels.

Crash cymbal
Hank drum
Hi-hat cymbal
Kagul or tagutok
Ride cymbal
Slit drums:
Slit gong
Splash cymbal
Steel-pan or steel drum
Udu [also an aerophone]
Wood block
111.241 Gongs – The vibration is strongest near the vertex.

111.241.1 Individual gongs.

111.241.2 Sets of gongs.

Agung or agong
Kulintang or kolintang
111.242 Bells – The vibration is weakest near the vertex.

Bell tree
111.242.1 Individual bells

111.242.11 Resting bells whose opening faces upward.

111.242.12 Hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.121 Hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.122 Hanging bells with internal strikers.

111.242.2 Sets of bells or chimes.

111.242.11 Sets of resting bells whose opening faces upward.

111.242.12 Sets of hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.121 Sets of hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.122 Sets of hanging bells with internal strikers.

Indirectly struck [112] Indirectly stuck idiophones produce sound resulting from an indirect action of the performer as opposed to the directly struck idiophones.[1] The player himself does not go through the movement of striking; percussion results indirectly through some other movement by the player. This category is divided in two main sub-categories: shaken idiophones and scraped idiophones.

Shaken idiophones or rattles [112.1] Further information: Rattle [percussion instrument]
The player makes a shaking motion

112.11 Suspension rattles – Perforated idiophones are mounted together, and shaken to strike against each other.

112.111 Strung rattles – Rattling objects are strung in rows on a cord.

112.112 Stick rattles – Rattling objects are strung on a bar or ring.

112.12 Frame rattles – Rattling objects are attached to a carrier against which they strike.

112.121 Pendant rattles.

112.122 Sliding rattles.

112.13 Vessel rattles – Rattling objects enclosed in a vessel strike against each other or against the walls of the vessel, or usually against both.

Alternate Tunings / South America

These are alternate guitar tunings that are used in Peruvian and other South American Guitar traditions. The open and dropped tunings are the more commonly used alternate tunings.

The same tunings under numerous different names can be found in Peru, Argentina, Africa, Asia and the South Pacific. For example D / A / D / F# / B / E the D 6/9 tuning, it is known as Rondeñas in Flamenco and used in the Amazonian region of Peru. It is also known as D Ni`ihau / Old Mauna Loa tuning in Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar.

Note: Should you attempt a tuning whose notes maybe a semitone or tone above the Baulin F / A / D / G / B / E. I would recommend the lightest string gauge set available for nylon string guitars. These tunings can be used on acoustic steel string and electric guitars with appropriate gauges.

Scordatura / Guitar Tunings / South America
Names Nomenclature Region Tuning
Standard Em11th * E A D G B E
Setime Dulce Peru E A D G B D
Wailija E A Dd G B E
Argentina E A D G C# E
  A Maj Cajamarca E A D A C# E
Victima   E A D G C# E
Vaulin F Minor E A C# F# B E
Diablo No. 1 F# A C# F# B F#
Diablo No. 2  Cusco E A C# F# B Eb
E A D# F# B E
Diablo E A D# F# B D#
Victim F Minor E A D# F# B E
Baulin D Minor F A D G B E
F A D G Bb E
Huayno Peru F B D G B E
F Bb D G B E
F Bb D G C E
  E C D G B E
Peru E G D G B E
Drop C Argentina C A D G B E
Drop D D A D G B E
D 6 / 9 D A D F# B E
Open D Minor D A D F A D
Open D Major D A D F# A D
Yaravi Peru D B D G B E
Baulin / Harp Peru D B D F# B E
Open E Minor * E B E G B E
Open E Major * E B E G# B E
Diablo? E Bb E G# B E
Ancashina, Peru E G D G B E
Open G Major * D G D G B D
G6 D G D G B E
D G D G D F#
D G D G# B D#
* G A D G B E
Comuncha Open G Major Peru G B D G B D
Comuncha Peru G B D G B E
G Minor * G Bb D G B E
Diablo G Bb D G C E
C Maj 7 G C D G B E

Citations: Bibliography: Websites: Pacoweb.net [archived on the wayback machine] ;


Name: Agogo.
Type: Idiophones > Metallophones > Bells.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 111.242
Country: Nigeria.
Region: West Africa.

Description: An agogô [in Yoruba: agogo, literal meaning bell] is a single or a multiple bell now used throughout the world but with origins in traditional Yoruba music and also in the samba baterias [percussion ensembles] in Samba festivals throughout Brazil.

The agogô may be the oldest samba instrument and was based on West African Yoruba single or double bells. The agogô has the highest pitch of any of the bateria instruments.


Alternate Tunings / Guitar


Guitar Tunings / Alternate
Names Nomenclature Pitch Tunings
Standard Renterant E m11th E / A / D / G / B / E
Semitone Renterant Eb Eb / Ab / Db / Gb / Bb / Eb
Tone Down Renterant D D / G / C / F / A / D
Renterant D# D# / G# / C# / F# / A# / D#
Renterant C C / F / Bb / Eb / G / C
Renterant C# C# / F# / B / E / G# / C#
* * * *
Lute Renterant E / A / D / F# / B / E
Lute No. 2 Renterant E / A / D / F# / A / E
Renterant A Sus 4/7 E / A / D / G / A / E
Lazy D Renterant D E / A / D / G / B / D
E / A / D / E / A / E
All Fourths Renterant F F / A / D / G / C / F
New Standard Renterant C / G / D / A / E / G
Augmented 4ths Renterant F C / F# / C / F# / C / F#
* * * *
 Dropped  A A / G / C / F / A / D
Semitone Down Dropped A# / Bb A# / F / A# / D# / G / C
Dropped B B / F# / B / E / G# / C#
Dropped B B / Gb / Bb / Eb / Ab / Db
Major S6th C / A / D / G / B / E
* * * *
Modal C C / F / C / G / C / D
Double Drop C C / G / C / F / A / C
Dropped C C / G / C / F / A / D
Dropped C# C# / G# / C# / F# / A# / D#
Open C# C# / G# / C# / F / G# / C#
Alternate Dropped C Sus 4/9 C / G / C / E / G / D
Vestapol Open C C / G / C / E / G / C
Dropped C Sus 4 C / G / C / F / G / C
Dropped C Sus 4/9 C / G / C / F / C / D
C C / G / C / G / C / D
Open C6 C / G / C / G / A / E
Modal C / G / C / G / B / D
Open C Maj 7 C / G / C / G / B / E
Orkney Modal G Sus 4/4 C / G / C / G / C / D
C / G / C / G / C / E
* * * *
Dropped C C / G / D / G / A / D
Open G / C Add4 C / G / D / G / B / D
Dropped C C / G / D / G / B / E
C Sus 2 C / G / D / G / C / D
Open C C / G / D / G / C / E
* * * *
C6th Lap Steel C6 C / E / G / A / C / E
Major Thirds Major C C / E / G / C / E / G
* * * *
Dropped D Min 7 D / A / D / F / A / C
Dropped D Maj 7 D / A / D / F# / A / C#
Dropped D Minor D / A / D / F / A / D
Dropped D 6/9 D / A / D / F# / B / E
Open D Major D / A / D / F# / A / D
Open B Min 7 D / A / D / F# / B / D
D# D# / A# / D# / F / A# / E
* * * *
D A D G A D Modal D Sus 4 D / A / D / G / A / D
Open A Sus 4 D / A / D / G / A / E
Double Dropped D D / A / D / G / B / D
Double Dropped D Dropped Db Db / Ab / Db / Gb / Bb / Db
Dropped D Dropped  D D / A / D / G / B / E
D# / A# / D# / G# / C / F
* * *  *
Open E Sus 2 E / B / E / F# / B / E
Open E Minor E / B / E / G / B / E
Open E Major E / B / E / G# / B / E
* * *  *
Open F C / F / C / F / A / C
F 5th C / F / C / F / C / F
F Sus 2 C / G / C / F / G / C
Open F F / A / C / F / C / F
Open F F / A / C / F / C / F
Open F F / Ab / C / F / C / F
Alternate Cross-Note F F / C / F / Ab / C / F
Curtis Mayfield F# F# / A# / C# / F# / A# / F#
* * *  *
D / G / D / F# / B / D
D / G / D / F# / B / E
D / G / D / G / A / D
D / G / D / G / A / E
G6 D / G / D / G / B / E
Dropped G D / G / D / G / B / D
Dobro Open G G / B / D / G / B / D
* * * *
Alternate Open A Major E / A / C# / E / A / C#
Open A Major E / A / C# / E / A / E
Alternate Open A Major E / A / C# / A / C# / E
Slide Open A Major E / A / E / A / C# / E
* * * *

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