Diyingehu

Name: Diyingehu.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 321.322.5
Inventor: Yang Yusen [1926-1980].
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The bass gehu [in Chinese 低音革胡; pinyin: dīyīngéhú, pronounced; tíín kɤ̌ xǔ]; also called digehu or beigehu 倍革胡, literally “bass gehu” is a Chinese bowed string instrument in the huqin family. It was developed by Yang Yusen along with the gehu in the 20th century. It has four strings and is the Chinese equivalent of the double bass.

Citations: Bibliography: Websites:

Dahu

Name: Dahu.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.313.7
Tuning:
Bayin: 絲 Silk.
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The dahu [in Mandarin Chinese: 大 胡; in pinyin: dàhú] it is the largest member of the huqin family of bowed, neck bowl lutes in terms of over all size and length. The dahu has been developed in three sizes, cizhonghu  xiaodihu, zhongdihu and dadihu.  

Etymology: The name derives from the Chinese character for “large” [dà] and the word hú shortened as a suffix for the family of instruments, the huqin family.

History: The dahu was developed in the 1930s as the tenor member of the erhu family. The erhu being the soprano [high pitched] lead instrument. This was modelled from the Western orchestra although the instruments were derived from the erhu as its a member of the huqin family. In between these two huqin the Zhong Hu was developed in line with the viola as its role to accompany erhu. This allows for harmony to be played.

Playing Techniques: The bow passes between the instrument’s two strings means that playing pizzicato is difficult; thus, the larger gehu and diyingehu, laruan [or cello or double bass] are generally used in Chinese orchestras for the lower bowed string voices instead.

Construction: Sharing the same body shape as its much smaller and higher pitched erhu. The sound body is rather large in size and the front face of the instrument is covered with python skin. The main fundamental difference being this was developed as an experiment for having a ‘bass erhu’ in an orchestral role. It has two strings spaced apart from each other tuned in the interval of a fifth. Its bridge is often placed somewhat above the center of the snakeskin to avoid stretching the skin.

Citations: Bibliography: Tsui Yingfai, 16 September 1998 “The Modern Chinese Folk Orchestra – A Brief History”. In Tsao Penyeh [ed.] Tradition and Change in the Performance of Chinese Music, Part 2. Routledge. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-9057550416 ;

Dihu

Name: Dihu.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.313.7
Bayin: 絲 Silk.
Country: China.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The [in Chinese 低胡, in pinyin: dīhú] is a large bowed string instrument from China. It has a large sound box covered on one end with snakeskin. Like most other members of the huqin family of instruments, it has two strings and is held vertically. The instrument’s name derives from “dī,” meaning “low” and “hú” short for huqin.

The dihu family was developed for orchestral use in the 1930s as lower sounding bass members of the erhu family. The erhu being the “soprano” member and the zhonghu being the alto member to increase the pitch range of the instruments used in a Chinese orchestra an to allow music with harmony to be played.

However, by the late 20th century it had largely fallen into disuse, part of the reason being that it is unwieldy to play. As the bow passes between the instrument’s two strings means that playing pizzicato is difficult; thus, the larger four-string gehu and diyingehu or cello or double bass are generally used in Chinese orchestras for the lower bowed string voices instead.

Sizes: The xiaodihu [小低胡], also called dahu or cizhonghu. It is pitched one octave below the erhu tuned D / A with its lowest D one whole step above the viola’s lowest C. It is the tenor member of the erhu family; the erhu being the soprano member and the zhonghu being the alto member.

The zhongdihu [中低胡], pitched one octave below the zhonghu, tuned G / D, as the middle strings of the cello. It is the bass member of the erhu family.

The dadihu [大低胡], pitched one octave below the xiaodihu and two octaves below the erhu; tuned D / A, with its lowest D one whole step above the cello’s lowest C. It is the contrabass member of the erhu family.

Dihu Tunings
Name Tuning
Xiaodihu [小低胡] D / A
Zhongdihu [中低胡] G / D
Dadihu [大低胡] D / A

Citations: Bibliography: Tsui Yingfai, 16 September 1998 “The Modern Chinese Folk Orchestra: A Brief History”. In Tsao Penyeh [ed.]. Tradition and Change in the Performance of Chinese Music, Part 2. Routledge. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-9057550416 Websites:

Daguangxian

Name: Daguangxian.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.313.7
Bayin: 絲 Silk.
Country: China & Taiwan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The daguangxian [in simplified Chinese: 大广弦; traditional Chinese: 大廣弦; pinyin: dàguǎngxián; literally “great, broad string instrument”] is a Chinese bowed two-stringed musical instrument in the huqin family of instruments. It is used primarily in Taiwan and Fujian, among the Hakka and Min Nan peoples. It is also referred to as datongxian [大筒弦], guangxian [广弦] and daguanxian [大管弦].

Playing Techniques: The Daguangxian is held on the lap and played upright in a similar manner to the erhu.

Citations:

Gallery

Musical Instruments Juan Bermudo 1555
Declaration of Musical Instruments Juan Bermudo 1555

Bipa
The Bipa is the adaptation of the Chinese pipa for Korean music. Pictured are diagrams containing the names of the components of the Bipa in the Akhak Gwebeom

Sihu

Name: Sihu.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes > Spike > Fiddles > Huqins > Bowed.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 321.313.7
Bayin: 絲 Silk.
Country: China, Inner-Mongolia.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The sihu [Chinese: 四胡; pinyin: sìhú] known as a ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠢᠷ / Хуучир / Khuuchir in Mongolia, where this term define the whole hugin family. Is a Chinese bowed string instrument with four strings. The instrument’s name comes from the words sì 四, meaning “four” in Chinese, referring to the instrument’s number of strings. Hú 胡 is short for huqin, the family of instruments of which the sihu is a member.

Repertoire: The sihu is primarily associated with the Mongolian culture. It is played by Mongolians in Mongolia and those who reside in the Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The Mongolians call it the Khuuchir. It is also used as a traditional instrument in the Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang provinces of China.

It is also used as an accompanying instrument in various Chinese narrative genres, including Beijing dagu, plum blossom dagu, xihe dagu, Tianjin new tunes, Shandong qin shu, Northeast dagu, Hubei song, Shaoxing lianhua luo, Shanxi er ren, Inner Mongolia er ren, northeast dance duet, lucky play, Beijing opera derived drama from ballads, Hebei Pi Ying [shadow theatre] and Henan erjiaxian traditional entertainment involving talking, singing, and drama.

Similar instruments include the Mongolian dörvön chikhtei khuur literally translates to “four eared fiddle” and the Tuvan byzaanchy. In China, dörbön chikhtei khuur [Chinese: 胡兀尔 or 都日奔齐和胡尔] is considered an alias of sihu.

Tunings: There are several sizes of sihu; this instrument is tuned fifths. From the smallest of the sizes tuned to D / D / A / A. The medium instrument is tuned too G / G / D / D and the lowest of these is generally tuned C / C / G / G ;

Sihu Tunings
Names Tunings
  D / D / A / A
  G / G / D / D
  C / C / G / G

Construction: Its soundbox and neck are made from hardwood and the playing end of the soundbox is covered with python, cow, or sheep skin.

Citations:

Wolgeum

Name: Wolgeum.
Type: Chordophones > Lutes.
Hornbostel Sachs No#: 321.322.5
Country: Korea.
Region: Far East Asia.

Wolgeum
Wolgeum lute as described in a wood block print of the Akhak Gwebeom.

Description: Wolgeum [in hangul: 월금; hanja: 月琴 Wolgeum] a lute having a circular moon shaped body, neck and four tuning pegs and a total of 13 frets. Strings were originally of silk. This instrument is no longer used although, it was documented in the 15th century Joseon dynasty in the Akhak gwebeom.

Citations: Bibliography: Akhak gwebeom [in Hangul 악학궤범; in Hanja 樂學軌範] by Seong Hyeon 1439-1504 Historic Text ; Websites:

Quena

Name: Quena.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Notched.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Specimens: 4 in collection.
Country: Many, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador.
Region: South America.
Acquisition Sources: Rene Hugo Sanchez, Vancouver Folk Festival . “market”.

Description: The queña [In Spanish: Queña or in Quechua: qina] It is a traditional pre-Colombian flute that is found in the Andes region, the Quena is played all the way from Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, North Western Argentina, Northern Chile and the Andean region of Colombia.

Playing Techniques: To produce sound, the player closes the top end of the pipe with the flesh between the chin and lower lip and blows a stream of air downward along the axis of the pipe. Or over an elliptical notch cut into the end.

Citations:

Shakuhachi

Name: Shakuhachi.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Notched.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Japan.
Region: Far East Asia.

Description: The shakuhachi [in Japanese 尺八、しゃくはち, shakuhachi, in IPA: ʃakʊˈhatʃi] is a Japanese end blown, notched flute. Originally introduced to Japan from China during the 7th century. The shakuhachi underwent a resurgence during the Edo Period [1603-1868]. The oldest shakuhachi in Japan is currently stored in Shōsō-in, Nara. It was used by the monks of the Fuke sect of Zen Buddhism in the practice of suizen [吹禅, blowing meditation].

Etymology: The name of the this particular flute “shakuhachi” is a compound word two different characters. The first word is [尺] “shaku” meaning “1.8 shake” which refers to the size of the instrument. The shaku is an archaic unit of length equal to 30.3 centimetres [0.994 English foot] and subdivided in ten subunits. “hachi” [八] means “eight”, here eight sun, or tenths of a shaku.

History: During the medieval period, shakuhachi were their most notable for their use by the monks of the Fuke sect of Zen Buddhism. The monks who played the shakuhachi in this sect were known as komusō [虚無僧] which translates as “priests of nothingness, or emptiness monks”. The repertoire practiced by these monks was called Honkyoku. These melodies were paced according to the players’ breathing. In which, they were considered meditation [suizen] and music.

During this era travel around Japan was restricted by the Shogunate. The Fuke sect managed to obtain an exemption by persuading the Shogun. As apart of their spiritual practice required them to move from place to place. The shogun in turn sent several of his own spies out in the guise of the Fuke sect monks as well. During their travels they played the shakuhachi for alms.

One famous song reflects this mendicant tradition [一二三鉢返の調]. The characters translate as “Hi fu mi, hachi gaeshi”, “One two three, pass the alms bowl”. This was made easier by the wicker baskets [tengai 天蓋] that the Fuke wore over their heads, a symbol of their detachment from the world.

Genres & Recordings: The primary genres of shakuhachi music are honkyoku [traditional, solo]; sankyoku ensemble with koto and shamisen and shinkyoku new music composed for shakuhachi and koto. Also this includes post-Meiji era compositions influenced by Western Music. The first shakuhachi recording that appeared in the United States was produced during the late 1960s.

Gorō Yamaguchi recorded A Bell Ringing in the Empty Sky for Nonesuch Explorer Records on LP. One of the pieces featured on Yamaguchi’s record was “Sokaku Reibo,” also called “Tsuru No Sugomori” [Crane’s Nesting]. NASA later chose to include this track as part of the Golden Record aboard the Voyager spacecraft. With in Western Music the shakuhachi became popular in Jazz, Free Improvisation, Popular Music, New Age and recording samples in software.

Tuning: The scale of the shakuhachi is set to a pentatonic minor scale.

Construction: Traditionally shakuhachi are constructed from the cutting the bamboo at the desired length from the root end of madake [真竹] Phyllostachys bambusoides. No shakuhachi are alike due to each piece of bamboo being unique. Each instrument is unique there for costing

Citations: Bibliography: Shakuhachi ~ Fundamental Technique Guidance, USA ; CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1 edition. pp. 101, 28 ISBN 978-1535460705 ; Yohmei Blasdel, Christopher; Kamisango, Yuko June 1, 2008 ; The Shakuhachi: A Manual for Learning [Includes Practice CD] – Printed Matter Press ISBN 978-1933606156 ; Yoshikawa, Shigeru 2017. Websites: Komuso.com – International Shakuhachi Society ;

Danso

Name: Danso.
Type: Aerophones > Flutes > Notched.
Hornbostel-Sachs No#: 421.111.12
Country: Korea.
Region: Far East Asia.
Specimen: 2 in collection.
Acquisition Source: First specimen, Value Village, Hastings Sunrise 2nd specimen, Randy Raine-Reusch @ asza.com.

Description: The danso [in Hangul: 단소 in Hanja: 短簫 danso] also spelled tanso is a notched, end-blown vertically held bamboo flute that is used in Korean folk music. It is traditionally made of bamboo, but since the 20th century it has also been made of plastic.

Citations: 

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